CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE THIRD CIRCUIT.
MR. CHIEF JUSTICE WHITE delivered the opinion of the court.
The history of this suit from its commencement up to the development of the controversy now before us, will be shown by an examination of the decided cases referred to in the margin.*fn1 We shall therefore not recur to that which has gone before but confine our statement to the things essential to an understanding of the phase of the issue which we must now decide.
Under proposals submitted by the Navy Department the petitioner, the Cramp Company, in 1908 contracted to build two torpedo boat destroyers, Nos. 30 and 31, and in 1911 further contracted to build four such boats, Nos. 47, 48, 49 and 50. The specifications submitted by the department as to structure, engines, etc., were comprehensively detailed and the contracts were based either upon the acceptance of such specifications or upon such changes suggested by the contractor as met the approval of the Navy Department. The contracts contained an express provision, which is in the margin,*fn2 protecting the Government
against any claims which might arise from the infringement by the contractor of the rights of any patentee, if any such rights there were.
The Turbine Companies filed their bill against the Cramp Company to recover damages and profits accruing from the infringement of certain patents on turbine engines which the Cramp Company had placed in the boats built under the contract of 1908. Ultimately this claim of infringement was upheld by the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. 211 Fed. Rep. 124. On the hearing which then ensued before a master as to damages and profits, the Turbine Companies urged their claim and tendered their proof concerning the same, covering the four destroyers, Nos. 47, 48, 49 and 50, built under the contract of 1911, upon the ground of an infringement like that which had been committed as to the boats built under the contract of 1908. Rubber Co. v. Goodyear, 9 Wall. 800. The inquiry was objected to on the ground of its irrelevancy because liability for infringement under the contract of 1911 was to be tested by a different rule from that which was applicable to the boats contracted for in 1908 in consequence of the applicability to the 1911 contracts of the Act of Congress of June 25, 1910, c. 423, 36 Stat. 851. Under that law, it was insisted, "the United States, by act of eminent domain, acquired a license to use the invention of all existing patents, and, therefore, the transactions under the contracts for torpedo boat destroyers Nos. 4m, 48, 49 and 50, being merely the building of devices for a licensee under the patent in suit, were licensed transactions and not infringing transactions, and consequently are not within the scope of this accounting." The master overruled the objection but thereafter on request certified the subject to
the District Court where his ruling was held to be wrong on its merits and reversed. On a rehearing the court sustained the view which it had previously taken of the subject by a reference to a decision of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. v. Simon, 227 Fed. Rep. 906; 231 Fed. Rep. 1021). 232 Fed. Rep. 166. Application was then made to the Circuit Court of Appeals by certiorari to review this ruling and by mandamus to compel the master to proceed with the hearing in accordance with the claims of the Turbine Companies. Finding that the ruling in the Marconi case was pending in this court for review, the Court of Appeals postponed deciding the issue of statutory construction to await the decision of this court, but directed the accounting to proceed as to both classes of contracts in such a manner as to enable the authoritative ruling on the statute when made by this court to be applied without confusion or delay. 238 Fed. Rep. 564.The writ of certiorari on which the case is now before us was then allowed and this and the Marconi Case referred to by the court below were argued and submitted upon the same day.
The single question is, did the provisions of the Act of 1910 operate without more to confer upon the United States a license to use the patents of the Turbine Companies; and if so, was the Cramp Company as a contractor authorized to avail itself of the license by using the patent rights of the Turbine Companies without their consent? Avowedly on the very face of the act its purpose was not to weaken the rights of patentees, but to further secure them. This results not only from the title of the law (An Act to provide additional protection for owners of patents of the United States, and for other purposes), but further from the report of the committee of the House of Representatives where the act originated which stated that such was the purpose intended to be accomplished
by the act. (House Report No. 1288, 61st Cong., 2d sess.) The conflict between the purpose thus intended and the construction now claimed for the act is evident unless it can be said that to confer by anticipation upon the United States, by a law universally and automatically operating, a license to use every patent right is a means of giving effect to a provision of a statute avowedly intended for the further securing and protecting of such patent rights.
But passing deducing the meaning of the act from its title and the report of the committee by which it was drafted, it is apparent that the significance which the contention affixes to it is directly in conflict with the text (which is in the margin,*fn1a ) since that text expressly declares that the object of the act is to secure compensation for patentees whose rights have been "used by the United States without ...