CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT.
MR. JUSTICE VAN DEVANTER delivered the opinion of the Court.
These cases exhibit an acute controversy between the Senior Circuit Judge of the Second Circuit and the District Judges of the Southern District of New York respecting the authority of a judge specially assigned to that district -- particularly the Senior Circuit Judge when so assigned -- to entertain an application for the appointment of receivers in a suit in equity.
Among the rules of the District Court for that district was one whereby a particular trust company was designated as a standing receiver in bankruptcy, and effect was given to that rule in all bankruptcy proceedings. There was no such rule respecting receivers in suits in equity, and the District Judges all regarded themselves as free in appointing such receivers to select any individual or trust company deemed competent and suitable for the particular task. But not infrequently they selected as an equity receiver the trust company which was designated by rule as a standing receiver in bankruptcy proceedings. The nature and importance of the equity receiverships for which a trust company was selected are not clearly disclosed in this record, but it is reasonably apparent that in no instance was the receivership at all comparable in scope or importance with the railroad receivership with which the present litigation is concerned.
In 1930 the Senior Circuit Judge, acting under 28 U. S. C., § 22, and reciting that the public interest required it, assigned himself to hold at any time a session or sessions of the District Court for that district, for the purpose of trying causes and entertaining and disposing of any matter which might come before him.
In June, 1932, at the suggestion of counsel in an intended suit in equity for the appointment of receivers for the Fox Theatres Corporation, the Senior Circuit Judge
sought informally to persuade one or more of the District Judges that a trust company ought not to be selected as receiver, but failed to secure an acceptance of his view. Thereupon, acting under his assignment of 1930, he entertained the application for a receiver and appointed individual receivers.
This action of the Circuit Judge was followed a few days later by the adoption and promulgation by the District Judges of two new rules, known as 1-a and 11-a, effective July 1, 1932, and apparently designed to limit or restrict the action of assigned judges in that district. These rules will be set forth later on.
August 25, 1932, counsel representing the parties in an intended suit in equity by the American Brake Shoe and Foundry Company against the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, informed the Senior Circuit Judge that an application for the appointment of receivers would be made in that suit, and laid before him an affidavit, entitled therein, alleging generally that a trust company or other corporation would not be a suitable receiver, and particularly that the defendant company's complicated and involved daily operations, its enormous staff of operating officials and employees, its contracts and relations with the City of New York, and the use of its facilities by the public, required that the receiver or receivers be a competent individual or individuals who could give constant and undivided attention to the matter. Thereupon the Senior Circuit Judge, conceiving that a District Judge might select a corporate receiver and that this would be unwise and should be prevented,*fn1 concluded to assign, and did assign, himself to hold a District Court for the Southern District, "particularly to hear and determine all applications and proceedings" in the intended
suit for a period beginning that day and continuing until the suit came to an end. This assignment, like that of 1930, recited that it was made under 28 U. S. C., § 22, and that the public interest required it.
The statute referred to in the two assignments provides:
"Sec. 22. The Chief Justice of the United States, or the circuit justice of any judicial circuit, or the senior circuit judge thereof, may, if the public interest requires, designate and assign any circuit judge of a judicial circuit to hold a district court within such circuit. . . .
"During the period of service of any judge designated and assigned under this chapter, he shall have all the powers, and rights, and perform all the duties, of a judge of the district, . . . to which he has been assigned (excepting the power of appointment to a statutory position or of permanent designation of newspaper or depository of funds)."
The new rules adopted by the District Judges declare:
"1-a. Any judge designated to sit in the District Court for the Southern District of New York, shall do such work only as may be assigned to him by the senior district judge."
"11-a. All applications for the appointment of receivers in equity causes, in bankruptcy causes and any other causes (except a receiver in bankruptcy may be appointed by a referee as provided in the Bankruptcy Rules), shall be made to the judge assigned [meaning assigned by the District Judges in their division of business] to hold the Bankruptcy and Motion Part of the business of the court and to no other judge."
Immediately after making the assignment last mentioned, the Senior Circuit Judge turned to 28 U. S. C., § 27, which declares:
"In districts having more than one district judge, the judges may agree upon a division of business and assignment
of cases for trial in said district; but in case they do not so agree, the Senior Circuit Judge of the Circuit in which the district lies shall make all necessary orders for the division of business and the assignment of cases for trial in said District"; --
and he then made and signed the following order:
"And whereas, Martin T. Manton, a Circuit Judge of the Second Judicial Circuit of the United States designated and assigned to hold a District Court in the Southern District of New York in said Circuit, and acting as District Judge for the Southern District of New York in this Second Judicial Circuit, does not agree upon the division of business and assignment of cases for trial in the Southern District of New York, as provided in and pursuant to the rules of court for the Southern District of New York, heretofore adopted by the then United States District Judges for the Southern District of New York; it is hereby
"Ordered, adjudged and decreed that, for a period of thirty days beginning with this day, all applications for the appointment of receivers in equity causes in the Southern District of New York may be made not only to the district judge designated to hear such application pursuant to Rule 11-a of the General Rules of the District Court for the Southern District of New York, but also to Martin T. Manton, Circuit Judge designated to act as District Judge to hold a District Court for the Southern District of New York."
That order was filed and entered in the District Court, and on August 26 the American Brake Shoe and Foundry Company filed therein its bill of complaint against the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, together with the affidavit before mentioned. The bill disclosed that the plaintiff was a simple contract creditor, suing on its own behalf and on behalf of all other creditors who might choose to join in the suit, and that the defendant was engaged
as a public carrier in operating an extensive system of transportation within the City of New York and its environs; set forth with much detail that the defendant was in greatly embarrassed financial condition, had made default in the payment of taxes and other claims, and could not avoid making default in the payment of instalments of interest and principal about to fall due upon bonds and other obligations secured by mortgages; alleged that its properties were in danger of being dismembered and largely wasted through competitive efforts by its many creditors to obtain satisfaction of their claims, that such wasteful strife would seriously impair and interfere with the discharge of its duties as a public carrier, that its properties could be preserved for equitable distribution among those entitled thereto only through the intervention of a court of equity, and that such intervention would make for a realization for all of the creditors of a substantially larger amount than if that relief were not granted. The prayer was that receivers be appointed to take charge of and preserve the defendant's properties, continue the operation of its railroad system for the accommodation of the public, and collect and properly appropriate the income until the final decree, and that the court marshal and administer the assets and by its decree ascertain and enforce the rights, liens and equities of the several creditors.
The suit plainly was within the jurisdiction of the District Court as a federal court. The parties were citizens of different states and the amount or value in controversy was in excess of the ...