the Laguna la Torrecilla and with the Atlantic Ocean. The outline of these canals is shown in defendants' Exhibits 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
15. These canals were navigated for commercial purposes from at least the early 1900's up until the 1930's or 1940's when a bridge was built across the Boca de Congrejos which permitted a road connection between the Loiza River and the Pinones Lagoon. The testimony of defendants' witness Ramon Moreno shows:
(a) Mr. Moreno, now 50 years old, was born and raised in the Pinones area, as were his parents. He worked in the Torrecilla-Pinones-Vacia-Talega mangrove forest 31 years from 1928-1959.
(b) Mr. Moreno and the other workers in the Torrecilla-Pinones-Vacia-Talega mangrove forest used the Canal de Tierra and the branch canal extending into the Vacia Talega project site to transport railroad ties, charcoal, crabs and vines during the 1930's and 1940's.
(c) It can reasonably be concluded that the canals which Mr. Moreno described in his testimony are the Canal de Tierra and the unnamed branch canal extending northeasterly through the Vacia Talega project site from the Canal de Tierra which connect to the Laguna de Pinones and ultimately the ocean. The canals are shown on the 1937 and 1960 aerial photographs of the Pinones-Vacia Talega area.
(d) The Canal de Tierra, at the time of Mr. Moreno's description, was approximately 12-14 feet wide and approximately 4 feet deep. The branch canal was approximately 8-10 feet wide and 3 to 3-1/2 feet deep.
(e) Workers in the mangrove forest navigated the branch canal in boats of up to 20 feet in length and 4 feet in width. Larger boats of up to 30 feet in length were used on the wider portions of the Canal de Tierra from the Laguna de Pinones to the trail from the beach to the Juan Perez Island.
(f) Mr. Moreno and many other workers used the branch canal for several commercial purposes.
(g) Railroad ties were made from hucar wood which was found buried in the mud in the mangrove swamp. The railroad ties were hand-carried from the Vacia Talega project site to the edge of the canal, and then transported by boat to the beach end of the unnamed branch canal where they were sold to Luis Enrique Biaschochea, owner of a farm, Monte Grande, a property of about 50 cuerdas located in the northwest corner of the Vacia Talega. Mr. Biaschochea developed a thriving business, which extended over the years 1936 through 1941, manufacturing and supplying railroad ties to sugar mills upon order in lots of 100 or more. The railroad ties were transported by way of the canals to Hoya Molas, a port at the southern end of the Laguna de Pinones. Mr. Moreno also testified that he saw others take the railroad ties within the project site and transport them by boat up the unnamed canal to a landing near the Punta Vacia Talega where Mr. Biaschochea would accept them.
(h) As many as 80 to 100 workers made charcoal on Mr. Biaschochea's property. Charcoal was produced in the mangrove forest and transported on water within the Vacia Talega project site to the beach. Mr. Biaschochea would buy the charcoal from the workers and transport the charcoal from the beach end of the unnamed branch canal to a warehouse at the beach end of the trail to Juan Perez Island. Mr. Biaschochea sold the charcoal after collecting it in small lots from the workers. Mr. Moreno also transported charcoal by boat from the Vacia Talega area to points on the Laguna San Jose. On occasion he sold the charcoal to the public on the streets of the areas around Santurce, just outside Old San Juan.
(i) Crabs were collected within the Vacia Talega project site and transported by water to his house on Laguna de Pinones and then to points on the Laguna San Jose to sell to restaurants and the public.
(j) Vines, found in the mangrove forest on the Vacia Talega project site, were transported by the canals to the Boca de Congrejos and sold to fishermen for use as netting for fish traps and seines.
(k) Mr. Biaschochea appeared as a witness and his testimony supported Mr. Moreno's concerning the commercial activities in the area of the Vacia Talega Project. Mr. Biaschochea's denial of the existence of an extensive canal system throughout the mangrove swamps is at variance with the physical evidence and the testimony of Mr. Moreno and, in this respect, cannot be credited.
( l) Mr. Moreno's testimony on the navigability of the Canal de Tierra and branch canal is circumstantially corroborated by certain other items of evidence adduced at trial:
(1) A translation of a Spanish document entitled "Canal from Loiza to the Pinones Lagoon" printed in the Official Bulletin of the Spanish administration in Puerto Rico, and dated September 28, 1941, which stated that on July 17, 1841 the government of Spain granted a license to several landowners in the Loiza area to open a canal from the Loiza River to the Laguna de Pinones in order to facilitate the transportation of their goods to San Juan. The document includes a description of the proposal canal. It was to be 24 feet wide and 12 feet deep and would allow the farmers to avoid the ocean route to the City of San Juan. (Defendants' Exh. 67).
(2) The doctoral dissertation written in 1937 at the University of Chicago by Marguerite Uttley entitled "Land Utilization in the Canovanas Sugar District, Puerto Rico" substantiates Mr. Moreno's testimony concerning the production of railroad ties and charcoal in the mangrove swamp and the transportation of the wood on the canal system. Defendants' Exhibit 27 shows clearly as navigable watercourses the Canal de Tierra and the Canal del Medio (as they are named on the Carolina quadrangle, Defendants' Exh. 3). Ms. Uttley described the transportation in the Pinones-Vacia-Talega mangrove forest in 1937 in these terms: