and that he was disabled from performing any type of work. The same physician also signed the death certificate where he listed the causes of death as chronic bronchitis from pneumoconiosis and cardiocirculatory collapse.
On July 5, 1972, Mr. Pennoni had a physical examination performed by another Italian doctor, and a chest x-ray was taken. The relevant portions of the diagnosis revealed arterial hypertension and bronchial catarrh (inflammation of mucous membranes. The x-ray was reviewed by an internist certified by the National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) who found it to be completely negative of evidence of pneumoconiosis. It was subsequently classified as 0/0, negative, by a NIOSH-certified internist specializing in pulmonary diseases.
On the same date, yet another doctor performed pulmonary function studies on plaintiff's husband. His cooperation and effort during the test were not reported. Upon review by a different physician, it was reported that the values shown in the studies could not be confirmed since the studies were inadequately labelled. Nonetheless, this reviewing doctor concluded that the values as stated were atypical for pneumoconiosis.
Plaintiff has written several letters citing pneumoconiosis contracted in the Nation's mines as the cause of her husband's death. Also, statements from several people, including the deceased miner's brother, have been submitted as evidence of his mine employment. These statements vary in the details of said employment. No mine records exist.
The administrative proceedings, which began when plaintiff filed her application for benefits on April 2, 1973, have been lengthy and the Court need not trace them here. Defendant does not dispute that plaintiff has met four of the five eligibility requirements for widows' benefits; namely, that she is a widow of a miner, that she has not remarried, that she was dependent on the miner at the time of his death, and that she has comported with the provisions of the Act in filing her claim for benefits, 20 C.F.R. § 410.210. What is disputed is whether plaintiff has met the final criterion; namely, that her husband's death be due to pneumoconiosis, or that he be totally disabled due to the disease at the time of his death.
The Court's sole function is to determine whether the Secretary's decision denying plaintiff's claim for benefits is supported by substantial evidence; i.e., such relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion. Bernardi v. Weinberger, 412 F. Supp. 629 (E.D. Okla. 1975). This standard is the same as that applicable to Social Security Act cases since Section 413(b) of the Mine & Safety Act, 30 U.S.C. § 923(b), incorporates Section 205(g) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 405(g), by reference.
Richardson v. Perales, 402 U.S. 389, 28 L. Ed. 2d 842, 91 S. Ct. 1420 (1971); Felthager v. Weinberger, 529 F.2d 130 (10th Cir. 1976).
Where there is a conflict in the evidence, it is the Secretary's duty to resolve it, and even though the evidence might support an alternative finding, the Secretary's conclusion should be affirmed if supported by substantial evidence. Blalock v. Richardson, 483 F.2d 773 (4th Cir. 1972). Plaintiff has the burden of proof with regard to whether she has met the required conditions of eligibility to make her claim. England v. Weinberger, 387 F. Supp. 343 (S.D. W.Va. 1974).
The Court has carefully reviewed and studied all of the pleadings and the transcript of the administrative record, including that pertaining to the Appeals Council's decision on remand from this Court.
In so doing, it has been especially careful to scrutinize all medical reports, letters, statements from co-workers of the deceased miner and other such pertinent documents contained in the record. Although the Court is sympathetic to plaintiff's claim, it cannot say that the Secretary's conclusion was without substantial evidence either under the tests for entitlement provided by the applicable interim adjudicatory rules or under the permanent rules. 20 C.F.R. § 410.401 et seq.
Both the interim and permanent rules provide four alternative tests under which plaintiff can attempt to prove her claim. The first test, the interim adjudicatory rule, provides for a rebuttable presumption of death or total disability due to work in the mines which arises where (a) an x-ray, biopsy, or autopsy confirms the existence of pneumoconiosis, or (b) the miner worked more than 10 years in the mines and ventilatory function studies establish the presence of a chronic respiratory or pulmonary disease. 20 C.F.R. § 410.490. Under the permanent rules, a second option establishes an irrebuttable presumption of death or total disability at the time of death due to pneumoconiosis if the evidence demonstrates the existence of "complicated" pneumoconiosis by x-ray, biopsy, autopsy or other acceptable means. 20 C.F.R. §§ 410.418, 410.458; 30 U.S.C. § 921(c)(3). The third test creates a rebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis if the miner worked for more than 10 years in the Nation's mines and died from a respirable disease. 20 C.F.R. §§ 410.456, 410.462; 30 U.S.C. § 921(c)(1) and (2). Finally, a rebuttable presumption is created if the miner worked for a substantial number of years (10) in the mines and "other evidence" demonstrates the existence of a totally disabling respiratory or pulmonary impairment. 20 C.F.R. §§ 410.414, 410.422, 410.426, 410.454; 30 U.S.C. § 921(c)(4).
Under the first test, the only chest x-ray submitted was read as negative for pneumoconiosis. No biopsy or autopsy report was available. Accordingly, plaintiff cannot prove her claim under this prong of the interim rule. The values recorded for Mr. Pennoni pursuant to the ventilatory function studies performed did fall within the listed tabular values for a person of his height. However, they were subsequently reviewed by a specialist in internal medicine who concluded that the studies were conducted and the values recorded in such a manner as to render them unacceptable for purposes of plaintiff's claim.
He nonetheless found that the values as stated were atypical of pneumoconiosis. This factor, added to the requirements that the miner must have worked in the mines for at least 10 years for the presumption of death or total disability due to the disease to arise, precludes plaintiff from proving her claim as a result of the ventilatory function studies.
Under the second test, again the negative x-ray and the absence of a biopsy or autopsy report preclude the establishment of an irrebuttable presumption of death or total disability at the time of death due to pneumoconiosis.
Pursuant to the third and fourth tests, plaintiff is not entitled to the presumption that the miner died of pneumoconiosis if he died of a respirable disease or that he was totally disabled due to respiratory or pulmonary impairment since he was not employed in the mines for at least 10 years.
A miner with less than 10 years of mine work must show that he has actual pneumoconiosis,
and once again, this can presumably only be done by x-ray, autopsy or biopsy. 20 C.F.R. § 410.428.
Without the benefit of the presumptions, plaintiff cannot sustain her burden. There is substantial support in the physician's report of the deceased miner's physical examination conducted approximately six months prior to his death for the conclusion that the primary cause of death was cardiocirculatory collapse and not pneumoconiosis. The July 5, 1972 pulmonary function studies, as previously mentioned, were not performed in conformance with the specifications of 20 C.F.R. § 410.430 and produced values which were diagnosed as atypical for pneumoconiosis. The medical opinions rendered by Mr. Pennoni's treating physician are conclusory and unsupported by clinical documentation. Therefore, they can be afforded little weight. Campbell v. Weinberger, 402 F. Supp. 1147 (N.D. W.Va. 1975). Finally, plaintiff's case is further weakened by the Court's finding of substantial support for the Appeals Council's conclusion that this deceased miner only worked for slightly over two years (1926-28) in the mines, and not six (1922-28) as he claims. Since his marriage certificate indicates he was married in Italy in 1926, it is highly unlikely that he worked for six years in this country beginning in 1922. Consequently, this extremely limited exposure to coal dust hazard further supports the Secretary's denial of plaintiff's claim.
Plaintiff has failed to establish that her husband's death was due to, or that he was totally disabled at the time of his death by, pneumoconiosis arising from his coal mine employment under any of the tests set forth in the statute or regulations. Additionally, no purpose would be served by remanding the cause to the Secretary for rehearing.
Accordingly, plaintiff's motion for reversal of the decision of the Secretary is denied and defendant's motion for judgment affirming the decision to deny plaintiff's claim for benefits under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act is granted.
An appropriate judgment and order is entered herewith.
JUNE L. GREEN U.S. District Judge [EDITOR'S NOTE: The following court-provided text does not appear at this cite in 443 F. Supp.]
JUDGMENT AND ORDER
Upon consideration of defendant's motion for judgment affirming the decision to deny plaintiff's claim for benefits under the Federal Coal Mine Health & Safety Act, plaintiff's motion for reversal thereof, and the entire record herein, and for the reasons set forth in the accompanying memorandum opinion, it is by the Court this 11th day of November 1977,
ORDERED that the defendant's motion is hereby granted; and it is further
ORDERED that plaintiff's motion is hereby denied and this case is dismissed.
JUNE L. GREEN U.S. District Judge