The opinion of the court was delivered by: WILKEY
This action was heard upon plaintiff's request for declaratory relief pursuant to section 5 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, 42 U.S.C. § 1973c. It concerns the validity of the Mississippi Legislature's statutory legislative reapportionment plan, Miss.Laws, 1978, Chs. 515 and 535, H.B. 1491 and S.B. 3098, enacted in March, 1978. The hearing took place September 18-27, 1978, at which a record of more than 1500 pages of oral testimony was compiled and more than 80 exhibits received in evidence. The matter has been extensively briefed by all parties. Based on this record of the evidence presented and on the applicable law, we make the following findings of fact and conclusions of law.
I. Factual and Procedural Background:
1. In 1965, private plaintiffs filed a complaint entitled Connor v. Johnson in the Southern District of Mississippi (hereinafter referred to as "the Connor Court") challenging the constitutionality of Mississippi's 1962 legislative reapportionment plan for the Mississippi Legislature. The 1962 plan, as well as successive legislative attempts to redistrict Mississippi's legislature for the 1967 and 1971 elections, were held unconstitutional by the District Court. Connor v. Johnson, 330 F. Supp. 506 (S.D.Miss.), supplemented in 330 F. Supp. 521 (S.D.Miss.1971); Connor v. Johnson, 265 F. Supp. 492 (S.D.Miss.1967); Connor v. Johnson, 256 F. Supp. 962 (S.D.Miss.1966). Consequently, court-ordered plans were implemented for the 1967 and 1971 elections.
2. In April, 1975, the Mississippi Legislature again attempted a reapportionment plan. The 1975 plan, although approved by the District Court, was declared ineffective by the Supreme Court until precleared pursuant to section 5 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, 42 U.S.C. § 1973c. Connor v. Waller, 421 U.S. 656, 95 S. Ct. 2003, 44 L. Ed. 2d 486 (1975). The Court's decision was without prejudice to a ruling by the Connor Court ordering the 1975 plan into effect if no other plan was formulated in time for the 1975 elections. Id. at 656-57, 95 S. Ct. at 2003.
3. On June 9, 1975, Mississippi submitted its 1975 reapportionment plan to the Attorney General for section 5 preclearance, and on June 10, 1975, the Attorney General interposed an objection to the plan.
4. On June 25, 1975, the Connor Court announced its intention to formulate a "temporary plan for the election of Senators and Representatives for the 1975 elections." Connor v. Waller, Civ. No. 3830 (S.D.Miss. June 25, 1975). Then, by orders of July 8 and July 11, 1975, the Connor Court ordered into effect an apportionment plan for the 1975 quadrennial election (hereinafter referred to as the "1975 court-ordered plan"). The 1975 quadrennial election in the Mississippi House and Senate, held in accordance with the 1975 plan, resulted in the election of the current Mississippi Legislature.
5. On November 18, 1976, the Connor Court formulated an apportionment plan to take effect for the 1979 quadrennial election. Connor v. Finch, 419 F. Supp. 1072, 1089 (S.D.Miss.), supplemented in 422 F. Supp. 1014 (S.D.Miss.1976) (hereinafter referred to as the "1976 court-ordered plan").
6. On May 31, 1977, the Supreme Court held that the 1976 court-ordered plan was unconstitutional on malapportionment grounds and returned the matter to the District Court with instructions to draft a new plan for the 1979 elections. Connor v. Finch, 431 U.S. 407, 97 S. Ct. 1828, 52 L. Ed. 2d 465 (1977). The Court cautioned the District Court on remand to draw legislative districts that were reasonably contiguous and compact or to explain precisely why, in a particular instance, that goal could not be accomplished. Id. at 425-26, 97 S. Ct. at 1839-1840.
8. On August 9, 1977, the Governor of Mississippi called a special session of the legislature to consider the establishment of a joint legislative committee for the formulation of a legislative reapportionment plan.
9. At the August special session of the legislature, a Special Joint Committee on Reapportionment (hereinafter referred to as "the Joint Committee") was created and State Representative Thomas Campbell was elected its chairman. The Joint Committee retained as its special counsel, Mr. Jerris Leonard of Washington, D.C., former Assistant Attorney General of the United States for Civil Rights.
10. For the purpose of formulating the processed plan, the Joint Committee interviewed experts on apportionment recommended by the Attorney General of Mississippi, Jerris Leonard, and Marshall Turner, Assistant Chief of the Demographic Census Staff of the United States Bureau of the Census. Of those interviewed, the Joint Committee selected Mr. Thomas Hofeller of California, Dr. Delbert Dunn of Georgia, Mr. Calvin Webb of New York, and Dr. Richard Morrill of the State of Washington. Each of those selected had prior experience in the formulation of reapportionment plans.
11. In addition to those experts selected from outside the state, the Joint Committee hired Earl Fortenberry, formerly the Director of the Legislative Services Office of the State Senate, as Director of the Joint Committee's staff. Mr. Fortenberry had previously participated in the development of reapportionment plans for the Mississippi Senate. Fortenberry in turn hired as staff five people, including two blacks who were graduate students at Jackson State University, to assist with the efforts of the Joint Committee staff.
12. In formulating the plan, Joint Committee experts and staff were instructed by Special Counsel Jerris Leonard to minimize population deviations among districts, to avoid diluting black voting strength, to create one complete district in counties whose populations were large enough for the election of a representative or senator, to avoid splitting a county into more than two segments unless two or more districts could be derived from the same county, and to create compact and contiguous districts.
13. To avoid dilution of black voting strength, staff experts looked at the general demographic makeup of the state and noted that, as a general rule, black concentrations of population existed in western portions of the state. They further noted that, with certain exceptions, counties in the eastern portion of the state contained significantly fewer blacks. The experts tried to avoid the combining of counties in the western portion of the state, which contained heavy black population concentrations, with counties from the eastern portion of the state containing heavy white population concentrations. This goal was accomplished by running the district lines from north to south rather than from east to west.
14. Avoiding dual incumbencies was another goal which the Joint Committee attempted to achieve so long as it could be accomplished while observing the criteria given to the Committee staff for devising the plan. Hofeller and Fortenberry first prepared the plan without regard to incumbency. When requests for changes emanating from a dual incumbency situation arose, solutions were checked to assure that they did not adversely impact established criteria, especially those concerning the maintenance of de minimus deviation and avoidance of dilution of black voting strength. As a result of changes made in the plan to avoid dual incumbency, 46 senators and 106 representatives were preserved in their respective districts while 6 senators in three districts and 16 representatives in eight districts were pitted against other incumbents for reelection.
16. The Joint Committee initially based its plan upon Census Enumeration District Lines (ED's) rather than precinct lines. After developing the ED plans for the House and Senate, the Joint Committee submitted the plans to the Connor Court. Both the Legislature and the Court expressed a preference for a plan using precinct lines as a means of avoiding voter confusion and of eliminating the need for re-registration of voters.
17. Because of the preference expressed for precinct lines, the Joint Committee staff was directed to convert the ED plan to a precinct plan by moving the boundaries of districts based on EDs to the nearest precinct line.
18. In order to convert the plans to precinct plans the Joint Committee found it necessary to obtain data on the EDs when split by precinct lines. The Joint Committee staff would draw the "split" of an ED on a Census Bureau map of the ED and forward the map to the Census Bureau. The Census Bureau would return population figures for both sides of the line splitting the ED. The Census Bureau, however, could not provide the exact racial composition of the split. This was determined by a computerized proportional allocation of black and white population within the ED to each side of the "split" line.
19. The resulting shift from the ED-based plan to a precinct-based plan was primarily a matter of refinement. It is not disputed that the basic configurations of the districts contained in the original ED plan and those of the resulting precinct plan are thus essentially the same.
20. The process used in developing the Joint Committee's plan was open to public participation and input. On October 11, 1977, the Joint Committee conducted public hearings on those plans presented to the District Court in Connor, and, on November 28, 1977, the Joint Committee conducted hearings on its statutory ED plan. No hearings were conducted on the precinct plan subsequently drawn from the ED plan. The hearings of October and November, 1977, were well publicized in advance and opportunity was afforded to all interested parties to submit their suggestions and objections.
21. The Joint Committee was responsive to those suggestions ultimately submitted. Suggestions were incorporated into the plan whenever the resulting redistricting was feasible in view of other criteria governing the formulation of the plans.
22. After months of consultation, the House plan as drafted by Hofeller and the Senate plan as drafted by Fortenberry were adopted by the Joint Committee and were introduced on the floor of the legislature. These two plans, submitted as H.B. 1491 and S.B. 3098 (hereinafter referred to as the "statutory plan") were adopted without floor amendment.
23. On April 21, 1978, the Governor of Mississippi approved and signed into law the two bills, S.B. 3098 and H.B. 1491, (Mississippi Laws, 1978, Chapters 535 and 515).
24. In June, 1978, the District Court in Connor directed the parties to confer for the purposes of arriving at a settlement of the Connor v. Finch litigation pending in the Southern District of Mississippi. The Joint Committee participated in these negotiations. In response to the objections to the statutory plan by the Connor plaintiffs, the boundaries of a number of districts in the plan were altered by the staff of the Joint Committee and a settlement proposal was submitted to the Joint Committee. The Joint Committee then informally polled the members of the Mississippi Legislature (the Legislature not being in session) to determine whether this settlement proposal was acceptable. In August, 1978, a majority of both houses of the Mississippi Legislature by a vote of 80 to 13 in the House and 26 to 7 in the Senate voted in favor of accepting the Connor settlement plan as an alternative to the statutory plan. After this poll, the Joint Committee accepted the settlement plan and recommended to the defendants in Connor that they enter into a consent decree incorporating this settlement proposal.
25. On June 1, 1978, the Attorney General for the State of Mississippi, submitted the statutory plan to the Attorney General of the United States for federal preclearance pursuant to section 5 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, 42 U.S.C. § 1973c. By letter of July 31, 1978, the Attorney General, by his designated agent Drew S. Days, III, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Civil Rights Division, rendered a timely objection pursuant to section 5 of the Voting Rights Act stating that "we have been unable to conclude that the submitted plans for the Mississippi Senate and House of Representatives do not have the purpose or effect of abridging the right to vote because of race or color." Letter from Drew S. Days, III, to Mississippi Attorney General A. F. Summer, July 31, 1978.
26. On August 1, 1978, Mississippi's Attorney General received, by telephone, notification of the Attorney General's objection. The same day, the State of Mississippi filed this action against the United States and Attorney General Griffin B. Bell seeking a declaratory judgment pursuant to section 5 of the Voting Rights Act.
27. On August 31, 1978, ten black citizens and registered voters of the State of Mississippi filed a motion to intervene as defendants and attached to their motion their proposed answer denying the material allegations of the complaint, denying that plaintiff was entitled to the relief requested, and alleging as an affirmative defense that the statutory plans "would lead to a retrogression in the position of racial minorities with respect to their effective exercise of the franchise" in violation of their rights secured by section 5 of the Voting Rights Act, and further that the statutory reapportionment plan dilutes, minimizes, and cancels out black voting strength in violation of intervenors' rights secured by the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. On September 18, the Court granted intervenors' motion for leave to intervene and to file their answer in intervention (order of September 18, 1978). As stated previously, this matter was subsequently heard during the weeks of September 18 through September 27. After proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law with accompanying briefs had been submitted, oral argument was conducted on January 16, 1979.
28. On March 26, 1979, the Supreme Court, upon a motion to seek a writ of mandamus, instructed the Connor court to issue a reapportionment plan forthwith, in accordance with its previous mandate in Connor v. Finch, 4 ...