The opinion of the court was delivered by: GREENE
This is a motion for a preliminary injunction
which seeks to restrain the enforcement of certain regulations issued in implementation of the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. § 276a et seq., and the Copeland Anti-Kickback Act, 40 U.S.C. § 276c. The regulations are to take effect on July 27, 1982.
The Davis-Bacon Act was enacted in 1931 and substantially amended to achieve its present format in 1935. Its principal purpose is to protect employees on federal projects by guaranteeing to them a minimum wage based on local prevailing wage rates. The Copeland Anti-Kickback Act was enacted in 1934, its purpose being to deter kickback practices by contractors on public construction projects. The issues here revolve around regulations issued after appropriate rule-making
by the Secretary of Labor in May 1982 which depart significantly in five respects from the regulations or interpretations which have been in effect since the early 1930s. The plaintiffs challenge the legality of the regulations in all of these respects.
On this motion for preliminary injunction the Court must consider whether plaintiffs have demonstrated (1) a strong showing that they are likely to prevail on the merits of their claims; (2) that without an injunction they will be irreparably injured; (3) that issuance of the injunction will not substantially harm other parties interested in the proceedings; and (4) that the public interest favors the grant of an injunction. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Commission v. Holiday Tours, Inc., 182 U.S. App. D.C. 220, 559 F.2d 841, 843 (D.C.Cir.1977).
In the view of the Court, plaintiffs have demonstrated a substantial likelihood that they will prevail on the merits. That conclusion is based in part on the Court's review of the language of the statute and its legislative history (which are discussed in this part of the opinion) and on the long and consistent administrative practice prior to the issuance of the new regulations (Part III infra ).
1. The Davis-Bacon Act establishes that the Secretary shall issue wage determinations based on the "wages ... prevailing for the corresponding classes of laborers and mechanics" in the area. The parties are in disagreement on the question whether this language permits the Secretary to issue regulations which would permit a substantial increase in the issuance of wage rates for semi-skilled "helpers." The new regulation provides for such an increase (1) by defining "helpers" as a class of "mechanics or laborers"; (2) by eliminating the requirement that the helper classification be prevailing in an area as long as it is "identifiable"; (3) by allowing the use of helpers for forty percent of the total number of workers in a particular classification and by permitting even that limit to be exceeded under certain circumstances; and (4) by adding helper classifications to a wage determination even though they were not included at the time the contract was awarded. In the opinion of the Court, these changes are not consistent with the statute.
largely broken down by intermediate classifications of labor and failure to retain the strict lines of demarcation intended to be drawn and maintained between skilled and unskilled labor. The whole tendency has been for wages of the skilled group to descend toward the level of the unskilled group, this by reason of intermediate classification devices.
The report concluded by recommending that construction contracts contain a provision stating that the minimum wages to be paid "various classes of laborers and mechanics" shall be based on wages prevailing "for the corresponding classes of laborers and mechanics," the language ultimately adopted in 1935. See S.Rep.No.332, 74th Cong., 1st Sess. (1935), Part 3, at pp. 13, 15-17.
The new regulations will permit precisely that which Congress intended to halt in 1935. The concept of "classes of laborers or mechanics" was and is central to the statutory scheme. Under existing and long-established industry and administrative practice, a "class" of workers is one that has been historically recognized as such and whose members perform well-defined tasks. Helpers have therefore been recognized as a class only when their use has been prevailing in an area and they have formed a distinguishable group performing discrete tasks.
Under the new regulations, helpers not only are not defined in traditional terms, but they may perform any task throughout the entire construction field: they are "general helpers." As a consequence, such individuals would be allowed, at the discretion of the contractors, to perform the tasks of laborers, of journeyman mechanics, and of laborers and mechanics on a cross-craft, multi-trade basis. Obviously, if contractors could thus assign a helper to perform the tasks of any and all classes of laborers and mechanics and they could do so at lesser pay, they will do just that, and the requirement that wages be based on "corresponding classes" will effectively be read out of the law.
As the Wage Appeals Board said in Fry Brothers Corp., 123 WAB No. 76-6 (June 14, 1977), at pp. 15-16:
If a construction contractor who is not bound by the classifications of work at which the majority of employees in the area are working is free to classify or reclassify, grade or subgrade traditional craft work as he wishes, such a contractor can, with respect to wage rates, take almost any job away from the group of contractors and the employees who work for them who have established the locality wage standard. There will be little left to the Davis-Bacon Act.
For these reasons, it is unlikely that, when the merits are reached, this regulation can be allowed to stand.
2. The 1935 amendments to the Act direct the Secretary, in his ascertainment of the prevailing wage, to determine wages for "projects of a character similar to contract work." 40 U.S.C. § 276a(a). The present regulation, which became effective contemporaneously with the 1935 statutory enactment, permits the Secretary, in performing this function, to include the wages paid in federal construction projects. The regulation issued two months ago explicitly mandates to the contrary that in compiling wage rate data the Secretary "will not use data from Federal or federally assisted projects" unless wage data from the private sector are insufficient for the Secretary's purpose.
In the opinion of the Court, the existing regulation far more faithfully reflects the intent of Congress than that which has just been issued.
In the first place, the statute expressly mandates the Secretary to consider "projects of a character similar"; not "private projects of a character similar." If a limitation or qualification is to be read into the statute it would have to be on the basis of extrinsic aids to construction, such as legislative history or administrative ...