The opinion of the court was delivered by: RICHEY
The Court has before it plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment; defendant's motion for judgment on the pleadings or, in the alternative, for summary judgment; and memoranda in support thereof and opposition thereto. Plaintiffs, Credit Union National Association ("CUNA") and National Association of State Credit Union Supervisors ("NASCUS"), challenge the validity of an Interpretive Ruling and Policy Statement ("IRPS 82-2") issued by the National Credit Union Administration Board ("NCUA" or "the Board") on April 28, 1982, setting payout priorities for involuntarily liquidating federal credit unions. Their objections are two-fold: first, plaintiffs claim that defendant failed to comply with the notice and comment provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act ("APA"), 5 U.S.C. § 553; in addition, they claim that defendant's rule is substantively defective because it is unauthorized by statute and not in accordance with law. Defendant contends that APA notice and comment requirements are inapplicable to an interpretive rule like IRPS 82-2 and that it is substantively justified under the Federal Credit Union Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1751 et seq. For the reasons set forth below, the Court concludes that IRPS 82-2 is not exempt from the notice and comment provisions of the APA and that the ruling is therefore invalid for failure to comply with necessary procedures.
NCUA is an independent executive agency, managed by a three-member board, charged with supervising federal credit unions. 12 U.S.C. § 1752a. Among its responsibilities, it provides "share insurance" to federal credit union savers of up to $100,000 per account. 12 U.S.C. § 1781(a). State-chartered credit unions may also qualify for insurance coverage. 12 U.S.C. § 1781(a),(b). Premiums are collected from the insured credit unions and deposited in a special United States Treasury Fund called the "National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund" ("NCUSIF"). 12 U.S.C. §§ 1782, 1783. The NCUA Board also acts as liquidating agent for bankrupt or insolvent federally-chartered credit unions. 12 U.S.C. § 1787(a)(1). When it determines that a credit union is insolvent, the Board makes insurance payments to members out of the NCUSIF and becomes subrogated to their rights against the closed credit union to the extent of the payments. 12 U.S.C. § 1787(c),(d). The Board must then proceed to "wind up the affairs" of the closed credit union, which includes making distributions to itself, to members, and to "other creditors." 12 U.S.C. § 1787(a)(2).
The current dispute concerns the manner in which the Board performs its liquidation duties. IRPS 82-2, "Payment Priorities of an Involuntary Liquidating Federal Credit Union," was issued by NCUA on April 28, 1982, in response to the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, 11 U.S.C. § 101 et seq., and to a report of the General Accounting Office (GAO) which dealt with NCUA's liquidation procedures. Previously, the Board recognized the following priorities: first, secured creditors, up to the value of their collateral; second, unsecured creditors and secured creditors to the extent that their claims exceeded their security interest; and finally, members to the extent of their uninsured shares and NCUSIF as subrogee of the rights of paid-out insured members. Under the new ruling, this scheme of creditor priority was abandoned. Switching from a three-tiered to a two-tiered hierarchy, IRPS 82-2 provides that, after secured creditors are paid up to the value of their collateral, both unreimbursed members and NCUSIF as subrogee share in any remaining funds with unsecured creditors and secured creditors to the extent that their claims exceed their security interest.
Thus, the net effect of IRPS 82-2 is to eliminate unsecured creditor priority over members and NCUSIF. The GAO advocated this change in its 1982 report in order to reduce the cost of liquidations to NCUA. (See "The National Credit Union Administration Should Revise Liquidation Procedures to Reduce the Net Cost of Credit Union Liquidation" at 7-8). Before considering the merits of plaintiffs' claims, defendant's preliminary objections to their standing and to the ripeness of this case must be addressed. The Court finds that neither ground bars it from adjudicating this controversy.
I. PLAINTIFFS HAVE STANDING TO CHALLENGE THE NCUA'S RULING
The standing doctrine has both constitutional and prudential dimensions. Valley Forge Christian College v. Americans United for Separation of Church and State, 454 U.S. 464, 471, 70 L. Ed. 2d 700, 102 S. Ct. 752 (1982). Judicial power is limited to "cases and controversies" by Article III of the Constitution. In addition, the requirement of an actual injury to a party with a personal stake in the outcome assures that a court can resolve disputes in a concrete factual context and with the benefit of vigorous advocacy. Id. at 472-73; Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186, 204, 7 L. Ed. 2d 663, 82 S. Ct. 691 (1962). A party has standing to challenge agency action if it suffers injury in fact and falls within the zone of interests to be protected or regulated by the statute in question. Association of Data Processing Service Organizations, Inc. v. Camp, 397 U.S. 150, 25 L. Ed. 2d 184, 90 S. Ct. 827 (1970); Community Nutrition Institute v. Bergland, 493 F. Supp. 488, 492 (D.D.C. 1980); Duke City Lumber Co. v. Butz, 382 F. Supp. 362 (D.D.C. 1974), aff'd, 176 U.S. App. D.C. 218, 539 F.2d 220 (D.C. Cir. 1976), cert. denied, 429 U.S. 1039, 50 L. Ed. 2d 751, 97 S. Ct. 737 (1977). CUNA and NASCUS satisfy both these tests.
Plaintiffs allege that they have "personally . . . suffered some actual or threatened injury as a result of the putatively illegal conduct of the defendant." Valley Forge, 454 U.S. at 472. CUNA, the national trade association for credit unions, has been prevented by the absence of notice and comment procedures from performing its organizational mandate of monitoring regulatory developments, reporting to its members, and advocating their interests. Affidavit of Jim R. Williams. See Center for Auto Safety v. Tiemann, 414 F. Supp. 215 (D.D.C. 1976), rev'd on other grounds, 188 U.S. App. D.C. 426, 580 F.2d 689 (D.C. Cir. 1978). It also has standing to sue on behalf of its members. Hunt v. Washington State Apple Advertising Commission, 432 U.S. 333, 342-43, 53 L. Ed. 2d 383, 97 S. Ct. 2434 (1977); Warth v. Seldin, 422 U.S. 490, 511, 45 L. Ed. 2d 343, 95 S. Ct. 2197 (1975). The new NCUA rule on priorities clearly increases creditors' risks in making loans to credit unions, and that greater risk means credit will be less available and/or more costly to CUNA members. See Affidavit of Leonard J. Santow. Whether creditors elect to require higher interest rates, to decrease lending, or to demand and perfect security interests, credit unions will suffer financially and possibly in terms of decreased flexibility. Such injuries, stemming from third party action, provide an adequate basis for standing. Barlow v. Collins, 397 U.S. 159, 25 L. Ed. 2d 192, 90 S. Ct. 832 (1970). The penalty will be passed on to credit union members in the form of higher interest loans or decreased dividends, defeating the goal of credit unions to provide low cost services to their members. See Affidavit of Eldon J. Thompson. Some injury has already occurred and future injury is not merely "speculative"; rather, it is a natural consequence of the normal practice of lenders. See Santow affidavit, paras. 10-13. CUNA members may also suffer, as the Board itself recognized, if increased credit costs force marginal credit unions into liquidation. See GAO report at 8.
Similarly, NASCUS alleges sufficient injury for standing. It is a nonprofit corporation comprised of the regulatory departments of forty-seven states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico that are responsible for the supervision of state-chartered credit unions and the enforcement of relevant state laws. As such, its organizational monitoring and lobbying responsibilities were impaired by the NCUA Board's failure to solicit notice and comment. See Affidavit of William Drohan. NASCUS's members have also been injured in that they cannot both enforce state law on creditor priority in liquidation and facilitate share insurance for credit union members by complying with the federal requirements. See Drohan affidavit, para. 7. These alleged injuries are not "generalized grievances," Flast v. Cohen, 392 U.S. 83, 106, 20 L. Ed. 2d 947, 88 S. Ct. 1942 (1968), based merely on NASCUS's members' status as citizens or taxpayers, allegations which would plainly fall short of the constitutional requisite. See, e.g., Valley Forge, 454 U.S. 464, 70 L. Ed. 2d 700, 102 S. Ct. 752; United States v. Richardson, 418 U.S. 166, 41 L. Ed. 2d 678, 94 S. ...