The opinion of the court was delivered by: PENN
The plaintiffs filed this action pursuant to the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA), as amended, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. The case is now before the Court on plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction. After giving careful consideration to the motion, the opposition thereto, the record in this case, and the arguments of counsel, the Court concludes that the motion should be granted.
Briefly, the underlying facts are as follows: The plaintiff Zahra is an 11 year old learning disabled child residing in the District of Columbia who is eligible for special education and related services pursuant to the EHA. Since 1985, she has been identified by the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) as learning disabled and eligible for special education. Prior to that time she had been attending the Lafayette School, a DCPS facility. In July 1985, an Individualized Educational Program (IEP) was prepared which proposed a full-time special education program for Zahra. See 34 C.F.R. §§ 300.340-300.349. An actual placement for the 1985-1986 school year was not recommended by DCPS until on or after September 13, 1985, the date on which the first of three impartial due process hearings were held. See 34 C.F.R. §§ 300.506, 300.507. See also Plaintiffs' Motion Exhibit 1 (Determination filed October 18, 1985, hereinafter referred to as the 1985 Determination) at 2. At that time DCPS proposed to place the child at the Prospect Learning Center (Prospect Center), a DCPS special education facility. The plaintiffs opposed the placement and contended that the child should be placed at the Lab School of Washington (Lab School), a private special education facility.
The hearing officer conducted a hearing on September 24, 1985, at which time she considered the appropriateness of the Prospect Center and the Lab School. In the interim, between the hearing of September 13 and the hearing of September 24, Zahra was placed at the Lab School by mutual agreement of the parties. 1985 Determination at 3. After considering the evidence offered by the parties, the hearing officer found that Zahra is a "seriously learning disabled student", that "no appropriate placement was available to Zahra for the academic year 1985-1986", that "Prospect Center does offer all of the program components that constitute an appropriate special education program/placement" and that the Lab School, "where Zahra is adjusting well, does offer all of the program components . . . necessary to provide Zahra with an appropriate special education program and placement." Id. at 4-6 (findings numbered 1, 7, 12 and 13). The hearing officer then determined that the 1985-1986 IEP was appropriate, that the Prospect Center was not an appropriate placement "at [that] time", and that the Lab School was an appropriate placement for the school year 1985-1986. Id. at 4 (decision and rationale numbered 1, 2 and 3).
The hearing officer then explained that Prospect Center "would have been an appropriate special education placement if proposed prior to the start of the school year." 1985 Determination at 7 (emphasis the hearing officer's). DCPS did not appeal that determination and continued to fund Zahra at the Lab School for the 1985-1986 school year. See 20 U.S.C. 1415(e)(2) (aggrieved party may file an action in a state court of competent jurisdiction or a federal district court).
On June 16, 1986, DCPS proposed returning Zahra to the Lab School for the 1986-1987 school year. Defendant's Motion to Dismiss Complaint, or in the Alternative, for Summary Judgment, Exhibit M. In a letter dated August 8, 1986, the Director of the DCPS Division of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services advised the plaintiffs that the June 16th letter stating that Zahra would continue at the Lab School was sent in error and that, in fact, DCPS proposed to change her placement to Prospect Center. Plaintiffs' Motion Exhibit 2. Enclosed with the letter was a Notice of Proposed Change in Educational Program dated July 31, 1986, in which DCPS proposed to change Zahra's placement from the Lab School to Prospect Center. Plaintiffs' Motion Exhibit 3.
The plaintiffs opposed any change in placement and requested an impartial due process hearing. A hearing was held and the hearing officer determined that Prospect Center represents an appropriate placement. Plaintiffs' Motion Exhibit 4 (Determination filed December 15, 1986, hereinafter referred to as the 1986 Determination). The hearing officer found that DCPS sent the letter of June 16, 1986 in error. Significantly, the hearing officer found also that the plaintiffs "unnecessarily delayed" the administrative hearing because, although they received the correction letter and Notice of Proposed Change in Educational Placement no later than August 12, 1986, they did not request a due process hearing until September 17, 1986. 1986 Determination at 6-8 (findings 7, 21).
This case represents an appeal from the hearing officer's determination that Prospect Center is an appropriate placement.
Normally, in order to be entitled to injunctive relief, plaintiffs would be required to demonstrate that they are likely to prevail on the merits, that they will suffer irreparable harm if injunctive relief is denied, that the other parties will not suffer substantial injury if injunctive relief is granted, and that the granting of injunctive relief is consistent with, or at least not contrary to, the public interest. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Commission v. Holiday Tours, Inc., 182 U.S. App. D.C. 220, 222, 559 F.2d 841, 843 (1977).
While the above represents the usual approach in considering injunctive relief, the EHA includes a "status quo" provision providing that "during the pendency of any proceedings conducted pursuant to [the EHA, and absent an agreement providing otherwise], the child shall remain in the then current educational placement for the child." 20 U.S.C. § 1415(e)(3). Thus, if the Lab School is Zahra's "current educational placement", DCPS is required to fund her at that school provided that the plaintiffs diligently pursue their rights in these proceedings. If the plaintiffs are correct in their argument that the Lab School is Zahra's current educational placement, they are entitled to injunctive relief without further proof, and it is not necessary for them to satisfy the usual requirements for injunctive relief.
The question as to whether the Lab School is Zahra's current educational placement turns on the facts of this case. Plaintiffs contend that it is her current educational placement because she was placed there and funded by mutual agreement of the parties, or in the ...