The State of Virginia took action against Pearce by barring him from being a Hutton manager there for five years. Pearce was also required to report to the securities regulators of the various states where he had been registered that an adverse action had been taken against him by his employer and the State of Virginia.
Pearce filed suit on January 3, 1986 against the Hutton Group and Griffin Bell. He alleges that Bell was hired to produce a report that would place blame for the fraudulent cash management program with low level employees rather than with Hutton's senior officers. Besides being made a scapegoat, Pearce alleges that the report falsely states that he should have known his actions were illegal and in violation of firm policies and guidelines. Thus, plaintiff claims the Hutton Report libels him and places him in a false light. Plaintiff also charges that by mentioning him in the Hutton Report, defendants have misappropriated his name.
On April 16, 1986, this court denied the Hutton Group's motion to stay these proceedings pending arbitration. On April 28, 1986, that decision was appealed. On June 10, 1986, a stay of this action, pending the appeal, was granted solely with regard to defendant Hutton Group. The Circuit Court heard oral argument on the appeal (D.C. Cir. No. 86-5281) on February 17, 1987 but no decision has been issued as yet. The case regarding defendant Bell was scheduled to go to trial on March 2, 1987. On February 9, 1987, however, trial was postponed because several motions had been filed that convinced the court this case was simply not ready to proceed. Among the motions filed, were the two dispositive motions presently before the court.
Defendant Bell has filed a motion for partial summary judgment on the claims for punitive damages and the false light invasion of privacy claim. Bell has also filed a motion for summary judgment with respect to the remainder of plaintiff's claims.
Plaintiff's original oppositions to Bell's motions were stricken from the record by this court in an opinion filed February 12, 1987, because they relied on inadmissible evidence. Plaintiff filed new oppositions on February 18, 1987. Defendant Bell renewed a motion to strike plaintiff's oppositions because they purportedly violated Fed. R. Civ. P. 56 and Local Rule 108(h). Bell claimed the oppositions were replete with false statements and with arguments, assertions, and allegations that are not referenced to the record. On March 9, 1987, the court ruled from the bench and denied Bell's renewed motion to strike. Following that ruling, the court heard oral argument on the motions for summary judgment.
II. BARS TO PLAINTIFF'S CLAIMS
As a preliminary matter, Bell argues that at least some of plaintiff's claims must be dismissed, regardless of how much supporting evidence plaintiff may have. First, plaintiff cannot raise a false light invasion of privacy claim since the applicable law is that of the State of Missouri, and Missouri does not recognize the false light invasion of privacy action. Second, plaintiff's misappropriation of name claim is inapplicable to the circumstances of this case. Finally, several of plaintiff's libel claims are not actionable since they involve statements that are absolutely privileged as expressions of opinion.
A. Choice Of Law
To determine which law applies to plaintiff's false light claim, the forum must apply the choice of law principles of the state in which it sits. Klaxon Co. v. Stentor Electric Mfg. Co., 313 U.S. 487, 496, 85 L. Ed. 1477, 61 S. Ct. 1020 (1941). This court must therefore apply the District of Columbia's choice of law rules to the problem. This is no simple task. Choice of law issues in defamation actions have historically presented difficult problems for the courts,
and these problems have only been magnified with the emergence of modern approaches to conflict of laws.
As at least one commentator has noted, American courts now follow no less than ten different approaches, not one of which can claim the allegiance of a majority of states.
1) Approach to conflict of laws in the District of Columbia
Until about thirty years ago, the territorialist or "vested rights" approach adopted by the first Restatement of Conflict of Laws dominated American conflicts law. E. Scoles & P. Hay, Conflict of Laws § 17.2, at 552 (1984). The District of Columbia abandoned that approach in Tramontana v. S.A. Empresa De Viacao Aerea Rio Grandense, 121 U.S. App. D.C. 338, 350 F.2d 468 (D.C. Cir. 1965), cert. denied, 383 U.S. 943, 86 S. Ct. 1195, 16 L. Ed. 2d 206 (1966).
In its place, a "governmental interest analysis" approach was adopted. See generally Milhollin, The New Law of Choice of Law in the District of Columbia, 24 Cath. U.L. Rev. 448 (1975).
Strictly speaking, interest analysis refers to the method developed by Professor Brainerd Currie. See R. Smolla, Law of Defamation § 12.03 (1986); Pielemeier, Multistate Defamation, supra note 2, at 396-98. Indeed, plaintiff appears to rely in part on arguments based on that form of interest analysis. Currie's approach, however, places heavy reliance on forum law. Pielemeier, Multi-state Defamation, supra note 2, at 396-97. See generally B. Currie, Selected Essays on the Conflicts of Laws (1963). Yet recent choice of law decisions by the District of Columbia courts put no such reliance on forum law. Thus, it is clear that the District does not follow Currie's brand of governmental interest analysis.
Nevertheless, Currie's work provided the starting point for many of the current, policy-based approaches to conflict of laws. Among these numerous variations of interest analysis is the "most significant relationship" approach of the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws. The Restatement (Second) developed over a seventeen year period which was marked by an at-first grudging and then a more whole-hearted acceptance of policy analysis. R. Cramton, D. Currie & H. Kay, Conflict of Laws: Cases - Comments - Questions 317 (1981). The end product combines presumptive jurisdiction-selecting rules with policy analysis. Id.
It is the Restatement (Second) that guides choice of law decisions in the District of Columbia.
The most significant relationship approach
has even been used by this jurisdiction in other defamation/invasion of privacy cases.
Therefore, the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws governs the choice of law issue in the case at bar.
2) False conflict analysis
The first step in deciding a choice of law problem is to determine whether there really is a conflict or whether the situation presents a "false conflict."
A false conflict exists when either (1) the potentially applicable laws do not differ, or (2) when, upon examination, one law -- by its terms or underlying policies -- is not intended to apply to a situation such as the one in issue. E. Scoles & P. Hay, Conflict of Laws at 17. Both concerns are raised in the instant case.
Plaintiff argues that the laws of the District of Columbia and of the State of Missouri do not truly differ as to the existence of a false light invasion of privacy claim under the facts of this case. It is clear that the District of Columbia does recognize the false light action. See, e.g., Dresbach v. Doubleday & Co., 518 F. Supp. 1285, 1291 (D.D.C. 1981); Logan v. District of Columbia, 447 F. Supp. 1328, 1332-34 (D.D.C. 1978). The only issue is whether Missouri recognizes such a claim.
The key case on this issue is the decision in Sullivan v. Pulitzer Broadcasting Co., 709 S.W.2d 475 (Mo. 1986). In Sullivan, a plaintiff was found to have filed a suit for defamation under the guise of an action for false light invasion of privacy in order to avoid the shorter statute of limitations for defamation actions. Id. at 476. The plaintiff contended the defendant had published a false accusation (that he had stolen materials, plans, and labor from the City of St. Louis for his personal benefit) that publicly portrayed him in a false light. Id. at 475. In holding that the plaintiff could not treat his claim as anything other than a defamation action, the court expressly rejected providing a false light claim when "one party alleges that the other published a false accusation concerning a statement of fact." Id. at 481.
Though plaintiff Pearce is correct in pointing out that the Missouri court did leave open the possibility of a false light claim in other contexts, the instant case is clearly not among them. Pearce is alleging that defendants published false accusations about him -- precisely the situation the court in Sullivan rejected as providing grounds for a false light claim. The Sullivan court noted only two situations in which it might possibly recognize the false light tort. Id. at 480. The first is when one publicly attributes to the plaintiff some opinion or utterance, harmful or not, that is false. The classic case would be where one claims the plaintiff wrote a book or poem that he did not. The second situation is when one uses another's likeness in connection with a story that has no bearing on the plaintiff. Obviously, neither of these scenarios is applicable to the case at bar. Therefore, since Missouri would not recognize Pearce's false light invasion of privacy claim, while the District of Columbia would, the potentially applicable laws are in apparent conflict.
The second step in determining whether a true conflict exists is to look at the differing laws and their underlying policies to see if they are all intended to apply to the situation at hand. By their terms, both Missouri's and the District's laws regarding false light actions are applicable to the present case. The underlying policies, however, are substantially different. The Missouri Supreme Court decision in Sullivan reflects that state's clear interest in refusing to allow false light actions to circumvent traditional restrictions on defamation claims. Id. at 480. Missouri has decided that defamation actions provide sufficient protection for its residents. Furthermore, the careful evaluation given the false light tort in Sullivan, as well as Missouri's much longer experience with privacy actions as compared to the District of Columbia's,
underscores the history and strength of Missouri's policy.
In sharp contrast, the District of Columbia has a rather nebulous policy underlying the false light tort. Cases involving such claims simply adopt the Restatement formulations for privacy torts without significant analysis or evaluation of this type of claim. In fact, while the court in Dresbach v. Doubleday & Co., found no reason to distinguish false light from defamation, 518 F. Supp. at 1288, it did not set forth any policy reason for simultaneously providing both causes of action.
Plaintiff has relied on language in Phillips v. Evening Star Newspaper Co. to argue that the District of Columbia has a policy of maximum protection for those placed in a false light. See 424 A.2d 78, 87 (D.C. 1980), cert. denied, 451 U.S. 989, 101 S. Ct. 2327, 68 L. Ed. 2d 848 (1981). Phillips, however, only discussed maximum protection in the context of a defamation action. Nothing was said to indicate that the District's policy of providing maximum protection to reputations also sought to provide plaintiffs with additional causes of action. It is just as plausible to presume that the false light tort was adopted solely to address concerns with privacy, rather than to augment the District's policy of maximum protection from defamation.
Even assuming the District's adoption of the false light tort is due to a policy of providing maximum protection, that policy would not be advanced here. Plaintiff was domiciled in Missouri. He lived and worked there for four years before the alleged invasion of privacy. Though plaintiff was at one time a domiciliary of the District, his residence ended by 1981 and has never been resumed.
If plaintiff was not (and is not now) domiciled in the District of Columbia, the District's interests will not be advanced by an application of D.C. law.
Since plaintiff was in St. Louis at the time Bell published his report, however, Missouri interests will be advanced by application of that state's law. Missouri has determined that the false light tort is unnecessary to protect its residents -- one of them being the plaintiff. Missouri has a greater interest in protecting free speech. Therefore, the case at bar presents a "false conflict." The only interested state is Missouri, which does not recognize the false light invasion of privacy claim.
3) True conflict and the state with the most significant relationship
Even assuming arguendo that there was a true conflict, Missouri has the most significant relationship to the occurrence and the parties, with respect to the false light claim. Under the Restatement (Second), the identification of "the state with the most significant relationship" involves a two-step process of identifying the relevant contacts with the respective states and then evaluating their significance in the light of, first, detailed prescriptive rules and, second, the policy-oriented general principles found in section 6(2). R. Cramton, D. Currie & H. Kay, Conflict of Laws: Cases - Comments - Questions, at 319-20.
According to section 145(2) of the Restatement (Second), the relevant contacts in tort cases are :
(a) the place where the injury occurred,
(b) the place where the conduct causing the injury occurred,
(c) the domicil, residence, nationality, place of incorporation and place of business of the parties, and