The opinion of the court was delivered by: REVERCOMB
GEORGE H. REVERCOMB, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE
This matter is before the Court pursuant to Defendants' Joint Motion for Judgment of Acquittal. FED.R.CRIM.P. 29.
The Defendants have been indicted with one count of conspiracy to defraud the United States, 18 U.S.C. § 371, one count of theft, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1707 and 2, one count of receiving stolen property, D.C. Code §§ 22-3832(a), -3832(c)(1), -105, two counts of mail fraud, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341, 2, and two counts of wire fraud, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1343, 2.
Rule 29 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure provides: "The court on motion of a defendant or of its own motion shall order the entry of judgment of acquittal of one or more offenses charged in the indictment . . . after the evidence on either side is closed if the evidence is insufficient to sustain a conviction of such offense or offenses." The purpose of this Rule is to implement "the requirement that the prosecution must establish a prima facie case by its own evidence before the defendant(s) may be put to [their] defense." United States v. Shafer, 384 F. Supp. 496, 497 (N.D.Ohio 1974) (quoting Cephus v. United States, 117 U.S. App. D.C. 15, 324 F.2d 893, 895 (D.C.Cir. 1963)).
In considering a Rule 29 motion this Court must determine whether upon the evidence, viewed "in a light most favorable to the Government giving full play to the right of the [trier of fact] to determine credibility, weigh the evidence and draw justifiable inference of fact," a reasonable mind might fairly conclude guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
United States v. Treadwell, 245 U.S. App. D.C. 257, 760 F.2d 327, 333 (D.C.Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1064, 88 L. Ed. 2d 788, 106 S. Ct. 814 (1986) (citing United States v. Davis, 183 U.S. App. D.C. 162, 562 F.2d 681, 683 (D.C.Cir. 1977)); see also United States v. Reese, 183 U.S. App. D.C. 1, 561 F.2d 894 (D.C.Cir. 1977); Curley v. United States, 81 U.S. App. D.C. 389, 160 F.2d 229, 232 (D.C.Cir.), cert. denied, 331 U.S. 837, 67 S. Ct. 1511, 91 L. Ed. 1850, reh'g denied, 331 U.S. 869, 67 S. Ct. 1729, 91 L. Ed. 1872 (1947). Although the evidence must be viewed in the light most favorable to the government, this Court is obligated to take a hard look at the evidence and accord the government the benefit of only "legitimate inferences." United States v. Singleton, 226 U.S. App. D.C. 422, 702 F.2d 1159, 1163 (D.C.Cir. 1983). In other words, this court will not indulge in fanciful speculation or bizarre reconstruction of the evidence. Moreover, this Court is not required to view the evidence through dirty window panes and assume that evidence which otherwise can be explained as equally innocent must be evidence of guilt. This is clearly not the standard of Rule 29. See Curley, 160 F.2d at 233 (if "a reasonable mind must be in balance as between guilt and innocence, a verdict of guilt cannot be sustained"). Rather, in order to find a legitimate and nonspeculative inference of guilt the government must articulate a rational basis in the evidence upon which that inference can arise.
This Court must grant Defendants' motion for judgment of acquittal if it finds that the evidence, even if viewed in the light most favorable to the government, is such that a reasonable trier of fact would have a reasonable doubt as to the existence of any of the essential elements of the crime. United States v. Durant, 208 U.S. App. D.C. 374, 648 F.2d 747 (D.C.Cir. 1981); see also United States v. Foster, 251 U.S. App. D.C. 272, 783 F.2d 1087, 1088 (D.C.Cir. 1986).
The unindicted coconspirators included: (1) Peter E. Voss who was, prior to May 30, 1986, a member of the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and was, at various times, a member of the Board of Governors Contingency Committee, a member of the Board of Governors Technology and Development Committee, a member of the Board of Governors Planning and Executive Resources Committee, and the Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors; (2) Sharon R. Peterson, who was an administrative assistant to Voss; (3) John R. Gnau, Jr., who was a principal of the consulting and public relations firms of Gnau, Carter, Jacobsen and Associates, Inc., John R. Gnau, Jr. and Associates, Inc., and Gnau & Associates, Inc. (GAI); (4) Michael B. Marcus, who was a Director and the Treasurer of Gnau, Carter, Jacobsen and Associates, Inc. and a Director, the Vice President and Treasurer of GAI; and (5) William A. Spartin, who was President of GAI and President and Managing Director of MSL International Consultants Limited, an executive placement firm, which was a subsidiary of the Hay Group.
To establish a prima facie case under 18 U.S.C. § 371, the government must prove that (1) an agreement existed among the Defendants to defraud the USPS; (2) the Defendants knowingly participated in the conspiracy with the intent to defraud the USPS; and (3) that one or more persons knowingly and willfully committed an overt act in furtherance of that objective. United States v. Treadwell, 245 U.S. App. D.C. 257, 760 F.2d 327 (D.C.Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1064, 88 L. Ed. 2d 788, 106 S. Ct. 814 (1986); United States v. Puerto, 730 F.2d 627 (11th Cir. 1984); United States v. Browning, 723 F.2d 1544 (11th Cir. 1984). For purposes of analysis this Court separates the conspiracy count into two parts: the Voss/Gnau payoff scheme and the Spartin personnel scheme. This Court finds that the evidence, viewed in the light most favorable to the government, does not support a reasonable inference that the Defendants knew of either scheme and that accordingly the government has failed to establish a prima facie case that the Defendants joined a conspiracy.
A. Voss/Gnau Payoff Scheme
There is no doubt that a conspiracy existed between Voss, Gnau, Marcus, and Spartin whereby Voss received illegal payments from Gnau for referring REI to GAI. On May 30, 1986, Voss plead guilty to two counts of accepting a gratuity in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 201(g) and one count of embezzlement and misappropriation of government property in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1707. See Criminal No. 86-195. On October 17, 1986, Gnau plead guilty to one count of conspiracy to defraud in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 371 and one count of paying an illegal gratuity in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 201(f). See Criminal No. 86-355. On January 20, 1987, Marcus plead guilty to two counts of aiding and abetting in paying an illegal gratuity in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 201(f). See Criminal No. 87-023. Spartin entered an agreement with the United States Attorney's office whereby he agreed to cooperate in the investigation in exchange for immunity from prosecution, if in fact prosecution would have been warranted, for any federal crime arising out of his activities involving the United States Postal Service. [GEX BS1, BS4]
The basic operative fact upon which the Government relies as indicia of conspiracy is that Voss in early September 1984 recommended to the Defendants the services of a specific consulting/lobbying firm for the promotion of the Defendants' product before the USPS. The government contends that a referral by a Governor of the USPS itself should have put the Defendants on notice.
Voss met with Reedy at the Mansion restaurant in Dallas on September 3, 1984 while Voss was there for the Technology Committee meeting with ECA. [Tr. 1176] During this meeting Voss told Reedy that he believed REI had a good product and that in the interests of the USPS he wished that REI would retain someone to aid them in packaging and presenting their product to the USPS. [Tr. 1176-77]
Robert Bray, REI's Vice President of Distributor Sales, testified that Reedy told him that Reedy asked Voss for suggestions as to someone who could help REI sell its product before the USPS but that Voss "was very hesitant to give names of any company [because it] wasn't his place to do so." [Tr. 1177] However, upon further queries from Reedy, Voss suggested GAI. [Tr. 1177]
This Court cannot find a legitimate inference from the fact of the referral itself that REI knew or should have known that a kickback scheme was being put into place. The government presented no evidence of the impropriety of a Governor having lunch with an officer of a company who was seeking to do business with the USPS. Several months prior to the time that Voss met with REI, he had publicly expressed caution in proceeding with singleline technology before studies ordered by Congress on the multiline/singleline debate were completed. [Tr. 1583] Moreover, the issue of multiline versus singleline technology was not simply a formal procurement issue within the USPS but was a subject of significant public debate involving executive studies, legislative inquiries and broad media exposure.
At a June 14, 1984 Congressional hearing the Office of Technological Assessment (OTA), the General Accounting Office (GAO) and postal management presented their respective views on OCR technology. [Tr. 1586] The GAO and OTA studies that were presented to Congress concluded that as a result of the USPS failure to convert to multiline technology the daily operational losses of the USPS were over one million dollars. [Tr. 1592] the inference that Reedy had to know in this context that Voss, a high and respected official of the United States government, who had been appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate, 39 U.S.C. § 202(a), was initiating a scam to fill his own pockets is not justified.
Subsequent to the Voss referral the evidence suggests that REI cautiously exercised its business judgment in formulating a contract with GAI to represent it in the promotion of its product before the USPS. The Defendants did not immediately act upon Voss' recommendation to retain GAI.
Bray testified that Reedy told him that Reedy did not want to hire GAI at any time prior to the November elections because, based on Gnau's representation, GAI was a politically-oriented consulting firm and Reedy thought that REI should wait until the political future of Washington, D.C. was clearer. [Tr. 1185] GAI and REI had not signed a contract in 1984 and as the new year began GAI was still having to sell itself to REI. GAI came to REI in Dallas on January 3, 1985 [Tr. 316, 322, 1978-79; GEX 473] and on January 7th or 8th Bray and an REI engineer visited GAI at its Bloomfield Hills, Michigan office to assess the technical competence of GAI to perform consulting services on behalf of REI. [Tr. 1621-22]
On January 8, 1985, Gnau wrote to Reedy to tell him that he had set up a meeting with Postmaster General (PMG) Paul N. Carlin on January 11, 1985 and asked for confirmation of a proposed consulting arrangement. [RR Ex. 30] Gnau testified that he did not tell REI that it was in fact Voss who set up the meeting between GAI and Carlin because Gnau was attempting to impress REI with the fact that GAI could secure for REI the political access it previously had been denied. [Tr. 655-57, 704].
On January 10, 1985, Reedy responded by a letter stating that REI intended to complete contract discussions and enter into a formal agreement with GAI in the following weeks and asked that GAI begin its representation of REI in its scheduled meeting with Carlin on January 12, 1985. Accordingly, Reedy enclosed with the letter a check for $ 10,000 as a partial payment toward the $ 30,000 retainer fee that GAI required. [RR Ex. 31; Tr. 658]
The meeting between GAI and Carlin was not encouraging for REI's interests. Carlin said that he did not want to interfere with his senior staff in this area and stated that "when it comes to multi-line technology and REI, there's nothing I can do for you in this regard." [Tr. 345] He suggested that GAI take REI's case up with the Technology Committee. Gnau did not inform REI of the disappointing results of his meeting with Carlin. Instead, on January 22, 1985, Gnau wrote to Moore to seek a date for a meeting at which they could finalize their proposed contract. [GEX 170] He wrote that, in his opinion, they could secure a formal review by the Board's Technology Committee and the eventual purchase order of 40-100 MLOCRs within 90-120 days from the beginning of January. Gnau's deception of REI -- his alleged coconspirator -- is unexplained.
During the latter half of January 1985 and most of February 1985, Bray participated at various times, together with REI's General Counsel Thomas A. Loose, and Associate General Counsel Carol Lyon, in drafting the formal agreement between GAI and REI. [Tr. 1623] As originally contemplated, REI would pay GAI a $ 30,000 retainer and expenses. However, as to GAI's proposal that it receive 2% of the value of any contracts that the USPS awarded to REI, REI negotiated the contingency fee down to 1%. [Tr. 1624-25; GEX 189]
The contract was finally executed by REI on February 26, 1985 and returned signed by Gnau to REI on February 28, 1985. [GEX 189A, 189B] The government argues that the fact that the contract was dated "as of" January 15, 1985 is an indicia of guilty knowledge in the course of the contract formation. The government's claim is untenable. The evidence shows that January 1985 reflected the month in which REI had requested that GAI represent REI and REI had submitted the initial $ 10,000 and the 15th reflected the payment schedule for the retainer. [GEX 189; Tr. 358] Lyon testified that a contract is frequently executed on one date but is backdated to reflect when performance on the contract actually began. [Tr. 992-93] The formal execution of the contract occurred six months after Gnau first met with Reedy.
The government also attempts to argue some type of inference of guilty knowledge by the purported fact of GAI's lack of stature as a consulting firm. In other words, the government attempts to create the impression that GAI was simply a "ghost firm" and that the Defendants accordingly must have known that GAI could have only been recommended by Voss for purposes of a kickback scheme. This inference is totally unsupported. The only evidence that the government offered in support of its theory was that GAI was a small three-man office headquartered in Bloomfield Hills, MI. This Court believes neither the size or the location of the firm is of significance one way or the other. The evidence in fact shows that GAI was a capable firm which presented a respectable client list to REI which included Ford Aerospace, [Tr. 620] Continental Airlines and Warner Amex Cable Communications, Inc. [RWR EX. 3]. Prior to the Gnau/Reedy meeting on October 12, 1984 Voss had briefed Gnau on the information and issues pertinent to REI to ensure that Gnau would have a "running start" in his sales efforts to REI. [Tr. 632, 698-700] Moreover, prior to REI's entering an agreement, Bray reported to Reedy that GAI's technical man, Marcus, was extremely conversant with the issues of OCR technology. [Tr. 1623] Finally, one of the reasons why REI hired GAI was precisely because GAI had political contacts which REI needed in order to open doors. For example, on January 8, 1985, Gnau wrote to Reedy stating that he had a meeting set up with PMG Carlin on January 11, 1985, and asking for confirmation of their consulting arrangement which was still unexecuted. [RR Ex. 30]
Moreover, as the relationship between GAI and REI developed and continued, GAI proved itself to be a hardworking outfit on the technical issues. Accordingly this Court can find no rational nexus between the standing of GAI and the inference of guilty knowledge.
4. Knowledge of GAI/REI Contract by REI Management
The government also cites as evidence the fact that the Defendants kept key members of REI management out of the informational loop on the GAI/REI contract. The government contends that this is conduct of guilty knowledge because it demonstrates that the defendants were attempting to hide their illegal arrangement. After a full ...