The opinion of the court was delivered by: LAMBERTH
ROYCE C. LAMBERTH, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE
At the hearing held on this motion on March 7, 1991, Officer James McCoy, Jr., testified that he and Officer Hilliard were working undercover in an unmarked car near the 2800 block of Robinson Place, S.E. At about 8:30 p.m., the two officers received a lookout from an officer in an observation post that a black male wearing a green jacket or coat with a light collar was observed exchanging drugs for money. Officers McCoy and Hilliard were members of an arrest team and had not observed the alleged transaction involving the described individual.
After arriving on the 2800 block of Robinson Place, the officers observed a black male with a black jacket and white collar walking down the sidewalk on the odd side of the street. On cross-examination, Officer McCoy admitted that the officers knew that the black male, later identified as Mr. Eaglin, did not match the lookout description before they decided to approach him. Nevertheless, the arrest team decided to stop Mr. Eaglin.
The officers, driving an unmarked Ford Bronco, pulled up "cross-ways," about fifteen feet ahead of Mr. Eaglin, immediately jumped from the Bronco with their guns drawn, and yelled that they were police officers. Officer McCoy testified that badges and patches identifying themselves as police officers were also visible. There were no other individuals in the vicinity of Mr. Eaglin when the officers jumped out of the Bronco.
Officer McCoy testified that he intended to question Mr. Eaglin before he saw him throw the plastic bag. The officers immediately approached Mr. Eaglin, at which time Mr. Eaglin reached into his pants pocket and threw a clear plastic bag into the air. One of the officers retrieved the bag; when it was found to contain illegal narcotics, Mr. Eaglin was arrested.
Defendant claims that the police had no reasonable articulable suspicion to perform a stop pursuant to Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 20 L. Ed. 2d 889, 88 S. Ct. 1868 (1968), and that the drugs recovered from Mr. Eaglin must be suppressed as the fruit of the illegal seizure. The government claims that Mr. Eaglin lacks standing to move for suppression of the drugs because he had abandoned them. Alternatively, the government claims that the police officers performed a proper Terry stop. The court will grant the defendant's motion to suppress, finding that the police officers performed an unlawful Terry stop which led to the discovery of the drugs.
A person is seized for fourth amendment purposes only if, in view of all the circumstances surrounding the incident, a reasonable person would have believed that he was not free to leave. United States v. Maragh, 282 U.S. App. D.C. 256, 894 F.2d 415, 418 (D.C. Cir. 1990) (citations and quotation marks omitted). Circumstances which might indicate a seizure include "the threatening presence of several officers, the display of a weapon by an officer, some physical touching of the person of the citizen, or the use of language or tone of voice indicating that compliance with the officer's request might be compelled." United States v. Mendenhall, 446 U.S. 544, 554, 64 L. Ed. 2d 497, 100 S. Ct. 1870 (1980). Police attempts to block a person's path can also contribute to a finding of seizure. United States v. Maragh, 894 F.2d at 418.
Officer McCoy's pre-approach intent to stop Mr. Eaglin is relevant to, although not required for, the court's finding of seizure in the present case. While it is well-established that a court making a seizure inquiry must focus on the impact of police actions and circumstances on a reasonable person, not on the intentions of the police, which are unknown to the citizen at the time of the police-citizen encounter, Michigan v. Chesternut, 486 U.S. 567, 575 n. 7, 100 L. Ed. 2d 565, 108 S. Ct. 1975 (1988); United States v. Lewis, 287 U.S. App. D.C. 306, 921 F.2d 1294, 1300 (D.C. Cir. 1990), the police intentions can be relevant to the court's thorough consideration of the factors involved in making a seizure determination. In making a seizure determination, the admitted intention of the police to make a Terry stop can aid the court in its analysis of the police-citizen encounter insofar as it can ...