LOUIS F. OBERDORFER, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE
Plaintiff National Security Archive is a nonprofit research institute and library whose main function is to discover, analyze, and index documents relating to national security matters. It also organizes these documents into sets which it makes available to libraries, scholars, journalists, Members of Congress, and the general public.
In July 1987, the Archive filed a request under the Freedom of Information Act ("FOIA"), see 5 U.S.C. § 552(b) (1988), with defendant Federal Bureau of Investigation for documents concerning the FBI's "Library Awareness Program." The FBI instituted that program in response to perceived activity by foreign agents in technical libraries across the country.
The FBI suspects that Soviet agents have been attempting to gain access to sophisticated scientific and technical information through the National Technical Information Service. Although that Service is open to the general public, an Executive Order bars Soviet nationals from access to it. The FBI also suspects Soviet agents of using libraries to recruit both librarians and students. According to the FBI, the Library Awareness Program, which was implemented by its New York office, responds to these threats to national security. For the most part, its purpose is simply to alert librarians in twenty-one technical libraries in the New York metropolitan area of suspected Soviet activities and to inform them how to report such activities. Other libraries and librarians have been contacted in response to specific reports of Soviet activity. The FBI, however, does not consider these investigations to be part of the Library Awareness Program.
On July 10, 1987, the Archive requested information concerning the Library Awareness Program from FBI Headquarters. Two months later, it submitted an additional request to the New York office. The FBI initially denied these requests on the grounds that there were no responsive records. In October 1987, the FBI corrected itself and informed the Archive that its earlier determination had been in error and that it would be processing the Archive's requests. By June 1988, however, the FBI had not released any documents. Accordingly, on June 2, 1988, the Archive filed this suit. Later that month, the FBI produced 22 documents. After the Archive challenged the adequacy of the FBI's search and a hearing on the subject was held, the parties entered into a stipulation. Following that stipulation, which was filed May 1, 1989, the FBI reviewed more than 2,000 pages of records. Invoking Exemptions 1, 2, 5, and 7 of the FOIA, the FBI withheld many of these documents entirely and redacted large portions of others. For approximately two hundred of these documents, the FBI filed Vaughn indexes describing the information withheld.
Based upon those declarations, the parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment. A hearing on those motions was held on November 14, 1990. On November 15, 1990, an Order informed the parties that the matter remained under advisement because the record did not provide a sufficient basis for a judgment. The Order also required the FBI to file in camera affidavits concerning most of the information withheld under Exemption 1 and a copy of the briefing book that Geer used to prepare for his testimony before Congress. Finally, the Order required the FBI to file publicly a copy of Geer's testimony and an affidavit concerning whether or not the names of policymaking officials had been withheld under Exemption 7(C). This Memorandum explains and modifies that Order.
I. NATIONAL SECURITY
Under Exemption 1, an agency need not disclose materials that are
(A) specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy and (B) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive order. . . .
5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(1) (1988). To properly invoke this exemption, the FBI must show that it has complied with the classification procedures established by the relevant Executive Order and that it has withheld only material properly classified under that order's substantive criteria for classification. See, e.g., King v. United States Dep't of Justice, 265 U.S. App. D.C. 62, 830 F.2d 210, 214 (D.C. Cir. 1987). The Archive does not challenge the validity of the procedures followed by the FBI. Moreover, it does not directly challenge the FBI's application of the relevant criteria for classification. Instead, the Archive criticizes the sufficiency of the description in the FBI's Vaughn index of those justifications and of the passages withheld.
The Archive's focus upon the sufficiency of the FBI's Vaughn indexes reflects the nature of the review of Exemption 1 claims. Because judges "lack the expertise necessary to second guess  agency opinions in the typical national security FOIA case," Halperin v. CIA, 203 U.S. App. D.C. 110, 629 F.2d 144, 148 (D.C. Cir. 1980), courts accord substantial weight to the determination of Executive Branch officials that information is properly classified. See S. Rep. No. 93-1200, 93d, Cong., 2d Sess. 12 (1974); Abbotts v. Nuclear Regulatory Comm'n, 247 U.S. App. D.C. 114, 766 F.2d 604, 606 (D.C. Cir. 1985). As a consequence, even though the Government has the burden of proving de novo that any information it has withheld fits under one of the exemptions to the FOIA, see 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(B) (1988),
in the national security context that burden is relatively light. An agency's declarations need merely:
describe the withheld information with reasonable specificity, demonstrating a logical connection between the information and the claimed exemption, and . . . evidence neither bad faith on the part of the agency nor a conflict with the rest of the record. . . .