racial discrimination in UDC's failure to promote him to the rank of Full Professor.
A two-week bench trial was conducted in September 1988. The parties submitted post-trial briefs in late spring 1989. The Court regrets the delay in resolving this case, caused in part by the difficulties posed by this matter as well as by the exigencies of an ever-burgeoning criminal calendar.
On August 29, 1988, this Court granted in part and denied in part defendant's motion for summary judgment. The motion was granted with respect to denial of promotion for academic years 1984-85, 1986-87, and 1987-88. The motion was denied with respect to academic year 1985-86, and defendant's failure to promote Bachman for that year alone was the subject of trial.
Notwithstanding the Court's ruling on the motion for summary judgment, which was based in large measure on plaintiff's failure to set forth issues of material fact in opposing the motion, the Court allowed plaintiff to introduce some evidence relevant to UDC's alleged history of discrimination and to flaws in the procedures used for making promotion decisions in other years.
Findings of Fact
Paul Bachman, a white male, was hired as an Assistant Professor by Federal City College (FCC) in 1971.
Bachman holds a Bachelor of Science degree from Wilkes College, a Master of Business Administration from the University of Scranton, and a Master of Arts from St. Francis College. In 1978, Bachman received a Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) from The George Washington University. (This, in academic parlance, constitutes the "terminal degree" for Bachman's area of specialization.) Throughout his tenure at FCC and UDC, Bachman has been employed by the College of Public Management. Bachman was a faculty member of the Department of Management.
In 1979, he was promoted to the rank of Associate Professor.
Overview of the Promotion Process
The District of Columbia Faculty Association represents the faculty members within the bargaining unit of faculty at UDC. The collective bargaining agreement between UDC and the Association is embodied in the Master Agreement, which sets forth procedures and minimum eligibility standards for promotion. For promotion to Full Professor, applicants must have three years of service at the next lower rank, Associate Professor; must have a terminal degree, defined as a doctorate; and must have an evaluation rating of "'good' or better for the last academic year."
Under the Master Agreement, each department has the responsibility of forming its own Committee on Promotions. That committee "recommends, in order of priority, the department's candidates for promotion." The departmental committee's recommendation is forwarded to the Collegewide Committee on Promotions, which "reviews the recommendations of the various department committees and . . . recommends, in order of priority, the College's candidates for promotion." Master Agreement, Section XII. Disagreements with the recommendations of either the departmental or collegewide committees are brought before the Faculty Review Committee, whose grievance review appears to be procedural rather than substantive.
Each academic year, a certain number of promotion slots are allocated to each college. The Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the President match the number of available slots to the priority rankings of each college's candidates.
That is, if a particular college has only one slot allocated to it, then only the top-ranked candidate will be promoted. If three slots are available, then the top three candidates will be promoted.
Supplementing, but not superseding, the minimum eligibility requirements of the Master Agreement are the UDC Faculty and Administrative Personnel Policies, which provide the most generalized of promotion criteria: education, teaching ability, scholarship and professional growth, service to the University, length of service, and service to the community.
In practice, at least within Bachman's college and department, decisions as to what weight to accord each of the criteria listed above were made after the candidates for promotion for a given year were known. Judith Ramey, a witness on behalf of UDC, testified that as a member of the Departmental Promotion Committee, the procedure was to (1) identify the candidates, (2) review the materials they submitted, (3) establish the criteria to be used for ranking purposes, and (4) vote. For example, for academic year 1985-86, candidates applied for promotion in December 1984. In January 1985 the Departmental Committee adopted the following criteria and weights to be used for evaluating candidates.
Maximum Points Available
University Service 15
Community Service 15
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