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February 14, 1992


Appeal from the Superior Court of the District of Columbia; (Hon. Evelyn E.C. Queen, Trial Judge)

Before Rogers, Chief Judge, Schwelb and Farrell, Associate Judges.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: Rogers

Opinion for the Court by Chief Judge ROGERS.

Concurring opinion by Associate Judge SCHWELB at page 18.

ROGERS, Chief Judge: Appellant Verdina Powell seeks reversal of the judgment dismissing her lawsuit as barred by the public duty doctrine. We reverse, holding that the trial Judge erred by concluding that under the public duty doctrine the District of Columbia government could not be held liable in tort for the negligence of its employee in issuing the wrong automobile license tags and registration number for appellant's car since appellant sufficiently alleged a special duty as would bring her within the "special relationship" exception to the public duty doctrine.


Appellant purchased a 1984 Ford Escort in April 1986, registered the car in the District of Columbia, and received D.C. license tags bearing the number 131-772. Thereafter, on December 6, 1986, she was stopped by an Anne Arundel County, Maryland police officer and her car was impounded when a computer check, through the Washington Area Law Enforcement System (WALES), incorrectly indicated that appellant's registration number belonged to another individual. *fn1 Based on these events, appellant sued the District of Columbia government (District), alleging that it negligently issued her a registration certificate and license plates that had previously been issued to Ms. Althea Hinds, and negligently entered her registration information into the WALES system. The trial Judge granted the District's motion to dismiss the complaint on the grounds that the suit was barred by the public duty doctrine.


Under the public duty doctrine:

[the District of Columbia] and its agents owe no duty to provide public services to particular citizens as individuals. Instead, absent some "special relationship" between the government and the individual, the District's duty is to provide public services to the public at large.

Hines v. District of Columbia, 580 A.2d 133, 136 (D.C. 1990) (citing Turner v. District of Columbia, 532 A.2d 662 (D.C. 1987); Morgan v. District of Columbia, 468 A.2d 1306 (D.C. 1983) (en banc); Platt v. District of Columbia, 467 A.2d 149 (D.C. 1983); Warren v. District of Columbia, 444 A.2d 1 (D.C. 1981) (en banc)).

The purpose of the public duty doctrine is to shield the District and its employees from liability associated with providing "public services." Hines v. District of Columbia, supra, 580 A.2d at 136. As applied by the court, it has berated to bar lawsuits by a person seeking, as an individual, to enforce the duties to prevent crime and otherwise protect against injury in the absence of a special relationship which imposes a special legal duty. Morgan v. District of Columbia, supra, 468 A.2d at 1311 (police services); Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 2-3 (same); see also Hines v. District of Columbia, supra, 580 A.2d at 136 (ambulance services); Platt v District of Columbia, supra, 467 A.2d at 150 (building permits).

Originally, the sovereign immunity doctrine shielded state and local governments from all tort liability under the common law maxim: "the king can do no wrong." Note, Municipal Liability for Negligent Inspection, 23 LOY. L. REV. 458, 459-460 (1977) (quoting Russell v. The Men Dwelling in the County of Devon, 100 Eng. Rep. 359 (K.B. 1788)) [hereinafter Note, Municipal Liability]. Realizing that the doctrine of sovereign immunity often led to unfair results, many jurisdictions either abolished the doctrine altogether, id. at 460 n.14 (citing WASH. REV. CODE ANN. § 4.96.010 (West 1967)), or limited its applicability. See D.C. Code §§ 1-1101 et seq. (1987 Repl.); *fn2 see also, PROSSER AND KEATON ON TORTS § 131, at 1044-1045, 1049 & 1052 (5th ed. 1984) [hereinafter PROSSER].

A number of jurisdictions, including the District of Columbia, now limit the circumstances under which governments can be sued by adopting one or more of three alternative approaches to avoiding liability. Note, Municipal Liability, supra, at 460, 463, 467; 57 AM. JUR. 2D Municipal, County, School, and State Tort Liability §§ 104-144. All three approaches have existed at one time or another in the District of Columbia. Two of them continue the sovereign immunity doctrine's jurisdictional bar to bringing suit, but limit its applicability by dividing governmental activities into two categories: (1) governmental (immunity) and proprietary (no immunity) or (2) discretionary (immunity) and ministerial (no immunity). See generally Spencer v. General Hospital, 138 App. D.C. 48, 425 F.2d 479 (1969) (en banc). The third approach is the public duty doctrine, which focuses on "whether the municipality owes a duty to the injured person." Note, Municipal Liability, supra, at 467; see 57 AM. JUR. 2D Municipal, County, School, and State Tort Liability § 139.

Initially, the courts in the District of Columbia applied the governmental/proprietary distinction in determining when sovereign immunity would bar a suit against the District, but gradually abandoned this in favor of the discretionary/ministerial approach. See Spencer v. General Hospital, supra, 138 U.S. App. D.C. at 52, 425 F.2d at 483, and cases cited therein. *fn3 It is now "settled that a District officer, and the District when sued for the acts of an officer under the theory of respondeat superior, are protected by sovereign immunity if the officer's acts are 'discretionary,' but subject to liability if the acts were 'ministerial' in character." Rieser v. District of Columbia,, 138 App. D.C. 375, 563 F.2d 462, 475 (1977); accord District of Columbia v. North Wash. Neighbors, 367 A.2d 143, 148 (D.C. 1976) (en banc) (noting that this distinction was influenced by similar distinctions under the Federal Tort Claims Act) (citing Wade v. District of Columbia, 310 A.2d 857, 860-61 (D.C. 1973).

This court has adopted the public duty doctrine to limit the District's liability in negligence cases where sovereign immunity is not a bar to suit. This approach originated from a principle of negligence which states that:

A duty may be general, and owing to everybody, or it may be particular, and owing to a single person only by reason of his peculiar position. Instances of the latter sort * * * the duty of every person to so conduct his business as to avoid exposing others to injury. But a duty owing to everybody can never become the foundation of an action until some individual is placed in position which gives him particular occasion to insist upon its performance; it then becomes a duty to him personally.

Orzechowski v. State, 485 A.2d 545, 549 n.3 (R.I. 1984) (quoting 3 COOLEY, LAW OF TORTS § 478 at 366 (4th ed. 1932)); see also Warren v. District of Columbia, 444 A.2d 1 (D.C. Super. Ct. November 21, 1978) (Appended to Warren v. District of Columbia, 444 A.2d 1, 8 (D.C. 1981)) (rebutting criticism of the tort principle that a duty owed to everyone implies a duty owed to no one).

From this general principle, Professor Cooley formulated the following rule for determining when a public official owes a duty:

If the duty which the official authority imposes upon an officer is a duty to the public, a failure to perform it, or an inadequate or erroneous performance, must be a public, not an individual injury, and must be redressed, if at all, in some form of public prosecution. On the other hand, if the duty is a duty to an individual, then a neglect to perform it, or to perform it properly, is an individual wrong, and may support an individual action for damages. "The failure of a public officer to perform a public duty can constitute an individual wrong only when some person can show that in the public duty was involved also a duty to himself as an individual, and that he has suffered a special and peculiar injury by reason of its nonperformance."

Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 9 (citing 2 COOLEY, LAW OF TORTS § 300, at 385-86 (4th ed. 1932) (citation and footnotes omitted)) (Kelly, J., Concurring in part and Dissenting in part).

Thus, as with the governmental/proprietary and the discretionary/ministerial approaches to defining the scope of the District's immunity, the public duty doctrine also establishes a dichotomy for determining whether a claimant may sue the District. The public duty doctrine, however, is not based on sovereign immunity considerations, but rather on whether, even if the acts involved are ministerial in nature, an actionable duty exists. Rieser v. District of Columbia, supra, 183 U.S. App. D.C. at 390, 563 F.2d at 477. The District is subject to liability for injuries arising from the negligence of its employees only if the duty owed to the plaintiff was a special duty to that person as an individual or as a member of a class of persons to whom a special duty is owed; the District cannot be sued if the duty it owed was a general duty to the public-at-large. *fn4 Klahr v. District of Columbia, 576 A.2d 718, 719 (D.C. 1990) ("Under the public duty doctrine, a person seeking to hold the District of Columbia liable for negligence must allege and prove that the District owed a special duty to the injured party, greater than or different from any duty which it owed to the general public.") . Since the individual employee cannot be held personally liable for his or her duties to the general public, neither can the municipality under a respondeat superior theory since the employer is entitled to its employee's defenses. *fn5 Modlin v. City of Miami Beach, 201 So.2d 70 (Fla. 1967).

Although the court has not described all of the circumstances under which the public duty doctrine applies, the court has defined it broadly for purposes of limiting the District's substantive liability. See, e.g., Hines v. District of Columbia, supra, 580 A.2d at 146. The court clearly has decided that the doctrine applies to law enforcement services and services akin to police and fire protection, and that the existence of a user-fee does not necessarily create a special relationship. See Morgan v. District of Columbia, supra, 468 A.2d at 1313 (no special relationship arises from fact person requests police assistance, nor from gratuitous promise to provide services); Wanzer v. District of Columbia, 580 A.2d id 127 (D.C. 1990) (noting history of free ambulance service, present prohibition against denying service for inability to pay, and "heavy subsidy to the Emergency Medical Services from general revenues"). Moreover, within this area of providing police and related services, the doctrine applies to actions as well as inactions by District government employees. See Nichol v. District of Columbia Metro. Police Dept., 444 A.2d 1 (D.C. 1981) (en banc) (where officer directed plaintiff's companion to cease efforts to obtain identification of assailants, and then failed to obtain the information himself, court held that the officer's "actions and failings . . . possessed no additional element necessary to create an overriding special relationship and duty") (companion case to Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 1). To determine whether the District may be held liable, a court must analyze whether the duty owed to the victim is a general duty to the public-at-large, in which case the public duty doctrine insulates the District from liability, or a special duty to the plaintiff, in which case the "special relationship" exception to the public duty doctrine applies and the District is subject to suit. *fn6

The question we must decide, therefore, is whether appellant has alleged an actionable claim by reason of the existence of a special duty owed to her, and thereby has brought herself within the special relationship exception.


Under the public duty doctrine, "a person seeking to hold the District of Columbia liable for negligence must allege and prove that the District owed a special duty to the injured party, greater than or different from any duty which it owed to the general public." Klahr v. District of Columbia, supra, 576 A.2d at 719 (citations omitted). Thus, in the area of police services, the court explained that a special legal duty is created "when there is a course of conduct, special knowledge of possible harm, or the actual use of individuals in the investigation." Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 3. In other words, liability exists where a "'special relationship' between the city and the injured party" is established. Turner v. District of Columbia, supra, 532 A.2d at 667 (citation and footnote omitted). The court suggested in Turner that "there are at least two ways to demonstrate the existence of a 'special relationship'. . . ." Id. at 667. A "special relationship" can be established by a statute prescribing "mandatory acts clearly for the protection of a particular class of persons rather than the public as a whole," Morgan v. District of Columbia, supra, 468 A.2d at 1314 (citations and internal quotation omitted), or by satisfying the two-prong test established by Platt v. District of Columbia, supra, 467 A.2d at 151 (citing Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 11 (Kelly, J, Concurring in part and Dissenting in part)), discussed (infra) pp. 15-16. Appellant asserts that she can satisfy either test.

Appellant contends that as a result of the District's law requiring registration of motor vehicles, the District has established a special class of individuals who must take certain steps in order to exercise the privilege of owning and operating a motor vehicle in the District of Columbia. Further, she contends that by issuing her a registration certificate and license plates bearing someone else's number, it was reasonably foreseeable that, if the error were discovered outside of the Offices of the Bureau of Motor Vehicle Services, serious consequences could result for appellant. Therefore, she contends the public duty doctrine does not bar her lawsuit because she was identified as the recipient of the particular services, which are not analogous to police or fire protection provided to the general public, and which are funded by a user fee. *fn7

In determining whether a statute or regulation establishes a "special relationship," the court has not to date defined a protected class in as broad a manner as appellant urges. Licensing and permit statutes do not necessarily create a "special relationship." District of Columbia v. Forsman, 580 A.2d 1314, 1317-18 (D.C. 1990) (demolition permits; third party claim); Platt v. District of Columbia, supra, 467 A.2d at 152 (occupancy permits for businesses, and necessary fire and building code inspections, third party claim). No statute or regulation relevant here prescribes, to an extent previously held sufficient to create a special relationship, "mandatory acts clearly for the protection of a particular class of persons rather than the public as a whole." Turner v. District of Columbia, supra, 532 A.2d at 667 (finding a protected class of abused children in the Child Abuse Protection Act, which mandated actions by the District (citing Morgan v. District of Columbia, supra, 468 A.2d at 1314)). Although D.C. Code § 40-102 (c) (1990 Repl.) requires the District to issue a certificate and identification tag to qualified motor vehicle owners, the District argues, not unpersuasively, that the purpose of this provision -- facilitating law enforcement -- is to protect the public-at-large and not motor vehicle owners as a special "class." *fn8 Improved law enforcement protects not only motor vehicle owners but others, such as pedestrians and passengers, some of whom do not own motor vehicles. Therefore, as the District maintains, the government's interest and purpose in obtaining the information about appellant's car was limited to law enforcement, and its duty was to the general public, not to provide appellant with benefits or services in any manner different from those provided to members of the general public. In this sense, she was treated as was everyone else who applied for registration.

Nevertheless, another type of statute may give rise to a special relationship even though it does not mandate duties for a special class. A statute which affords an individual the opportunity to seek its protection by taking certain actions may give rise to a special duty to that individual. Thus, appellant contends that a "special relationship" arose between herself and the District of Columbia Bureau of Motor Vehicle Services when, as required by law, she registered her car by filling out forms, making a sworn statement, and paying a fee.

In Platt v. District of Columbia, supra, the court adopted a two-prong test for a "special relationship" of this kind, under which a plaintiff must demonstrate: "1) a direct contact or continuing contact between the victim and the governmental agency or official; and 2) a justifiable reliance on the part of the victim." 467 A.2d at 151 (citing Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 11 (Kelly, J., Concurring in part and Dissenting in part)). *fn9 The first prong, which focuses on the contact between the plaintiff and the public official, requires "some form of privity between the police department and the victim that sets the victim apart from the general public . . . . That is, the victim must become a reasonably foreseeable plaintiff." Warren v. District of Columbia, supra, 444 A.2d at 10 (Kelly, J., Concurring in part and Dissenting in part) (citing City of Tampa v. Davis, 226 So.2d 450, 454 (Fla. 2nd Dist. Ct. App. 1969)). The required contact must, in other words, be a "direct transaction with the person injured" or "an arms-length relationship in which the city's agent is dealing directly, in some form, with the person injured." City of Tampa v. Davis, supra, 226 So.2d at 452-53.

It could be argued that appellant's contact with the Bureau of Motor Vehicle Services did not satisfy the first prong of the test. *fn10 In Hines v. District of Columbia, supra, 580 A.2d at 132, the court noted that even a series of contacts over a period of time is not enough "absent some showing that the agency assumed a greater duty to that person than the duty owed to the public at large." But the broad language in Hines merely states the obvious, namely, that mere contacts are insufficient in the absence of evidence of a special duty arising as a result. The Platt test takes this into account because it requires not only proof of a type of contact different from that of the District with the general public, but also proof of justifiable reliance. *fn11

Appellant met the first prong of the Platt test for a special relationship because the District's duty under the statute to issue her the correct license plates and registration for her car arose from a "direct transaction" -- as evidenced by her application and payment of a fee -- between herself and the Bureau of Motor Vehicle Services. This direct and personal transaction was an undertaking by the District to her individually that the number on her license tags and registration belonged only to the car she owned. See D.C. Code § 40-102 (c) (1990 Repl.); see Morgan v. District of Columbia, supra, 468 A.2d at 1314; cf. Rieser v. District of Columbia, supra, 138 U.S. App. D.C. at 392, 563 F.2d at 479. While paying a fee may be insufficient standing alone to create a special relationship, see Wanzer v. District of Columbia, supra, 500 A.2d at 130, it is one factor properly considered in determining whether a "direct transaction" took place between appellant and the District. *fn12

To drive a car without suffering penalties of law, appellant was required by District of Columbia law to register her car, and to renew her registration annually. D.C. Code §§ 40-102 (a) & (b) & (d), -105 (a)(1) & (b) (1990 Repl.). The statute described the obligation that the District assumed upon accepting her application and issuing license tags and a registration. Id. § 40-102 (c). Thereafter it was reasonably foreseeable by the District that if appellant's registration and license tags' number were incorrectly recorded and entered in the WALES system, she could suffer various penalties including the impoundment of her car, as occurred here. Id. §§ 40-102 (g)(3), -105 (a)(1); 18 DCMR §§ 411.3, 429.3 (c); MD. CODE ANN. § 13-402.1 (f) (1987) (misdemeanor for nonresidents' noncompliance with registration requirements); 18 DCMR §§ 1101.1, 1110.1 ($300 fine or 10 days in jail); see also United States v. Hill, 458 F.2d 31, 32 (D.D.C. 1978) (impoundment for failure to register).

Appellant also has met the second, or "justifiable reliance" prong of Platt. The registration system is premised on different numbers being assigned to every vehicle. D.C. Code § 40-102 (c); 18 DCMR §§ 413.5, 413.8 ("identification tags are solely for the operation of the vehicle described on the registration card which accompanies them"). Indeed, the effectiveness of the registration system as well as the WALES system depends on an individualized numbering system in which registration numbers are accurately entered into the computer. Id. § 40-102 (f) ("to facilitate the identification and regulation of motor vehicles . . . the Mayor shall establish . . . (4) program for keeping records of registration . . . ."); id. § 40-102 (e)(1) (registration is nontransferable since it expires upon sale or transfer of the vehicle). Since the sanctions of the registration law are visited upon a registrant through the operation of the WALES system, appellant also could justifiably assume that the District, in the interests of assuring the effectiveness of the WALES system, would accurately record her license and registration number in the WALES system.

The statutory scheme for lawful operation of a motor vehicle placed certain responsibilities on appellant which, upon their fulfillment, in return placed responsibilities on the District to her as the owner of the registered vehicle. Appellant relied to her detriment on the District's affirmative actions in registering her car after accepting her application and fee, and her reliance was reasonable. By issuing a registration and license tags with a certain number, the District made constructive representations to appellant that that registration number had been assigned to her car. D.C. Code § 40-102 (e)(1). Appellant's subsequent reliance was not that of a member of the general public -- upon the general assurance that the registration and WALES system would serve their law enforcement purposes -- but rather upon the specific representation to her that her car would be correctly registered and her registration number correctly entered into the WALES system. She relied on the District's representation when she affixed the license tags to her car and drove it into Maryland in the belief that, having properly registered her car under the District's law, she would not suffer the penalties for driving without a valid registration and license tags.

Accordingly, because appellant sufficiently stated a claim of negligence against the District as a result of its special duty to her, thereby placing her within the special exception to the public duty doctrine, we reverse the judgment dismissing her complaint. *fn13

SCHWELB, Associate Judge, Concurring in the judgment: I concur in the judgment, as well as in much of Chief Judge ROGERS opinion. I write separately, however, to explain my view that the public duty doctrine has not previously been applied, and ought not be applied, to the type of situation here presented.

Chief Judge ROGERS describes the public duty doctrine as being somewhat akin to the defense of sovereign immunity. Ante at 4-5. Sovereign immunity, as she observes, stems from the historical maxim that "the King can do no wrong." The problem is, however, that he can do wrong and often does. The divine right of kings would make sense if kings (or governments) always conformed their conduct to divine or angelic norms. Unfortunately, they do not. For this reason, and because, as the majority points out, "the doctrine of sovereign immunity often led to unfair results," ante at 3, that doctrine has been abolished for tort actions in this jurisdiction, at least to the extent that "ministerial" (as distinguished from discretionary) functions of the District government are involved. *fn1 See District of Columbia v. Pace, 498 A.2d 226, 228-29 (D.C. 1985); Chandler, supra note 1, 404 A.2d at 965; Wagshal v. District of Columbia, 216 A.2d 172, 173 (D.C. 1966). *fn2

Absent sovereign immunity or some other compelling reason, conventional principles of the law of negligence presumptively do and should apply, no matter whether the defendant is the District or one of its citizens. See, e.g., District of Columbia v. White, 442 A.2d 159, 162-63 (D.C. 1982). The elements of negligence are (1) the existence of a duty owed by the defendant to the plaintiff, (2) a negligent breach of that duty by the defendant, and (3) an injury to the plaintiff (4) proximately caused by the defendant's breach. See, e.g., District of Columbia v. Fowler, 497 A.2d 456, 462 n.13 (D.C. 1985); Morrison v. MacNamara, 407 A.2d 555, 560 (D.C. 1979); PROSSER, (supra) note 2, § 30. The District has conceded the second element, and Ms. Powell has indisputably alleged facts in her complaint which, if proved, would establish the third and fourth. The only remaining question is whether the District owed a duty to Ms. Powell to process her automobile registration properly.

Ordinarily, a defendant must exercise reasonable care to avoid unreasonable-risk of injury to others. Munson v. Otis, 396 A.2d 994, 996 (D.C. 1979); Donoghue v. Stevenson, 1932 App. Cas. 562, 580 (appeal taken from Scot.); PROSSER, (supra) note 2, § 53, at 358. In determining whether a defendant owes a duty to a particular individual, the dispositive question is generally whether injury to that individual was reasonably foreseeable to the defendant. Kline v. 1500 Mass. Ave. Apt. Corp., 141 App. D.C. 370, 375-78, 439 F.2d 477, 482-85 (1970); Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R., 248 N.Y. 339, 162 N.E. 99, 101 (1928); PROSSER, (supra) note 2, § 43, at 284-290. That, however, is as far as the defendant's duty extends. He is not obliged to rescue others from peril or to aid them in time of need, at least in the absence of proof of a special relationship between him and the plaintiff. In re A.C., 573 A.2d 1235, 1244 (D.C. 1990) (en banc); Rieser v. District of Columbia, 183 App. D.C. 375, 563 F.2d 462, 480 (1977); Yania v. Bigan, 397 Pa. 316, 322, 155 A.2d 343, 346 (1959); PROSSER, (supra) note 2, § 56, at 375-77.

There is no allegation in the present case that the District owed Ms. Powell a duty to rescue or protect her from some pre-existing peril. Rather, the harm which Ms. Powell claims to have suffered was caused solely by the District. When municipal employees entered Ms. Powell's registration data into the WALES system under a number which had already been issued to someone else, it was reasonably foreseeable that, if the error were to be discovered by the gendarmerie at some inopportune time, Ms. Powell could find herself in an unanticipated quandary. Since tortfeasors generally owe a duty of reasonable care to foreseeable plaintiffs, this would have been the end of the matter if the suit had been against a non-governmental defendant. No showing of a special relationship of the kind required in "rescue" cases would then have been necessary if the defendant had been a private party.

The majority presumes, however, that because the defendant in this case is the District of Columbia, these familiar principles of the law of negligence do not apply. Chief Judge ROGERS would effectively require Ms. Powell, in order to recover, to prove the existence of a special relationship between the District and herself (e.g., an affirmative representation by the District upon which Ms. Powell reasonably relied to her detriment), which would not be an element of her case if she were suing a private corporation. I disagree with this approach. Unlike the majority, I would start with the presumption that, except in carrying out its discretionary functions, the District, like any other party, must exercise reasonable care to avoid injury to a foreseeable plaintiff. If the District fails to do so, and if the proximate result of its failure is injury to the plaintiff, then the District should presumptively be required to compensate her for those injuries. "There is perhaps no doctrine more firmly established than the principle that liability follows tortious wrongdoing; that where negligence is the proximate cause of injury, the rule is liability and immunity is the exception . . . ." Stone v. Arizona Highway Comm'n, 93 Ariz. 384, 392, 381 P.2d 107, 112 (1963).

The District claims exemption from liability to Ms. Powell for its negligence on the theory that relief is barred by the so-called public duty doctrine. Some courts have reasonably concluded, albeit without my metaphor, that even as heretofore applied, that doctrine is an albatross around the neck of Justice. *fn3 Whether or not it ought to be abolished in this jurisdiction, however, is not the question before us. Rather, we must decide whether the public duty doctrine should be extended to reach this case.

In our previous cases, the public duty doctrine has been applied exclusively to situations in which the District has allegedly failed to take affirmative steps to rescue or protect a plaintiff from an injury or a peril caused by someone or something other than the District itself. *fn4 Application of the doctrine to that type of case does not carve out an unprincipled exception to the general concept of municipal liability for negligence in carrying out ministerial functions, for it is basically consistent with the common law doctrine that there is no affirmative duty to rescue absent some special relationship. In fact, the public duty cases are in some measure the analytical cousins of the private rescue cases. *fn5

Our public duty precedents stand for the proposition that a plaintiff seeking recovery against the District for failing to save him from an existing peril or protect him from harm must establish a special relationship with the government sufficient to trump the general rule that, even for a governmental defendant, there is no duty to any individual citizen to provide such protection. If liability were readily imposed against the government in such a situation, then just about any victim of crime or misadventure might be viewed as having an arguable claim against the District as well as against the wrongdoer. Requiring a plaintiff who claims that the District negligently failed to rescue him, or to prevent harm to him from a third party, to distinguish his own situation from that of the citizenry as a whole is therefore at least arguably reasonable. Accordingly, we held in Platt, supra note 4, 467 A.2d at 151, in the context of the District's allegedly negligent failure adequately to carry out safety inspections of a movie theatre, and thus to prevent harm to patrons, that the plaintiffs must demonstrate: "1) a direct or continuing contact between the victim and the governmental agency or official; and 2) a justifiable reliance on the part of the victim." Soon thereafter, in Morgan, supra, 468 A.2d at 1314, we adopted a two-part test which defined the requisites of a special relationship as being "(1) a specific undertaking to protect a particular individual, and (2) justifiable reliance by the plaintiff." These rules, as elaborated in other public duty doctrine cases, roughly correspond to those applied to private actors pursuant to common law rescue principles.

So far as I am aware, however, the public duty doctrine has never before been applied to a situation such as this one, in which it was solely the District's own lack of due care that actively and directly caused the plaintiff harm. *fn6 If a negligently operated District police car were to strike and injure Ms. Powell, the District would be required to compensate her for her injuries. *fn7 The Corporation Counsel conceded at argument, moreover, that the District would likewise be liable if such an accident resulted from the failure on the part of an agent of the District adequately to inspect or maintain the car's brakes, even though no particular individual would be a foreseeable plaintiff. I see no principled basis for differentiating between Ms. Powell's situation and that of a victim of an automobile accident caused by the District's lack of due care.

The harm allegedly suffered by Ms. Powell was not of some intangible or theoretical character. On the contrary, it was real. She maintains that as a result of the mismatch between her license plate and the information which the District's employees negligently entered into the WALES system, she and two companions found themselves stranded on a remote highway in Anne Arundel County, Maryland at 2:30 a.m. one cold December morning, her Ford Escort having just been impounded. When she became understandably upset at the police officer's not-so-subtle accusation that she had stolen the vehicle, the officer told her that if she "didn't be quiet, he was going to lock up." Frightened, lost, and unfamiliar with the surroundings in which they found themselves, the astonished and bewildered trio had to make their way some distance through the snow even to find a telephone. It was almost dawn when they managed to find a taxicab to drive them home. *fn8 In the weeks following her misadventure, according to Ms. Powell, she had to go to the trouble of contesting the citation she had been so undeservedly given as a result of the District's error, and of retrieving and re-registering her car and obtaining unimpeachable license plates for it. If Ms. Powell can prove by a preponderance of evidence that all of this travail was a proximate result of the District's negligence, a doctrine which in my view was devised for entirely different circumstances should not stand in the way of her recovery.

None of the public policy considerations which Chief Judge ROGERS describes in footnote 5 to her opinion as supporting the public duty doctrine warrants application of that doctrine here. A decision in Ms. Powell's favor is a far cry indeed from imposing judicial scrutiny over every act of the non-judicial branches of government. The need of public employees to retain "broad discretion" in the exercise of their functions does not extend to entering erroneous computer data or to issuing someone the wrong license plate. To the extent that the public fisc is diminished by holding the District liable in such a case as this, that consequence is not nearly as unjust as leaving Ms. Powell uncompensated for the harm which, if the allegations of her complaint are true, the District's negligence has surely caused her.

Arizona's experience is instructive. In 1963, the defense of sovereign immunity was judicially abolished for all claims against the state. Stone, supra, 93 Ariz. at 392, 381 P.2d at 112. Six years later, the court adopted the public duty doctrine. Massengill v. Yuma County, 104 Ariz. 518, , 456 P.2d 376, 379-81 (1969). In 1982, the court overruled Massengill, holding that "the parameters of duty owed by the state will ordinarily be coextensive with those owed by others." Ryan v. State, 134 Ariz. 308, 656 P.2d 597, 599 (1982). Responding to Ominous governmental warnings of impending doom, the court remarked:

We are also told that not only will the public treasury suffer but government will come to a standstill because its agents will be afraid to act. We can't but recall the dire predictions attendant to the publication of the Stone decision. Arizona survived!

Id. at , 656 P.2d at 598. So, too, the demise of the District of Columbia is not yet around the corner, irrespective of the result of this case.

I am gratified that my colleagues recognize the improvidence of barring Ms. Powell from the courthouse door. I believe, however, that the eminently fair result which they have reached ought to be secured by a simpler and more straightforward route. I would favor the application of traditional doctrines of negligence, rather than embarking upon a search for exceptions to a public duty doctrine which, whatever its merits in some other situation, seems to me to have no bearing whatever on this one.

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