The opinion of the court was delivered by: STANLEY S. HARRIS
Before the Court are the motions of defendants MCI Communications Corporation ("MCI"), Wiltel, Inc. ("Wiltel"), and Sprint Communications Company, L.P., ("Sprint") to dismiss in these consolidated cases. Upon careful consideration of the entire record, the Court grants the motions to dismiss of defendants MCI and Sprint. The Court stays the complaint against Wiltel pending resolution of related issues by the FCC.
Although "findings of fact and conclusions of law are unnecessary on decisions of motions under Rule 12 or 56," Fed. R. Civ. P. 52(a), the Court nonetheless sets forth its reasons.
These consolidated cases arise out of the FCC's long-standing policy of exempting certain long distance carriers from the tariff filing requirement embodied in section 203 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. § 203. Pursuant to this "permissive detariffing" policy, carriers that the FCC determined to be nondominant in the inter-exchange market were permitted to choose whether to file tariffs. See Fourth Report and Order, 99 F.C.C.2d 554, 578 (1983) ("Fourth Report,. Both MCI and Wiltel, in reliance on the Fourth Report, provided interstate telecommunications services to certain customers at specially negotiated rates not set forth in any tariff filed with the FCC. Sprint consistently has filed tariffs for all of its telecommunications services. These tariffs establish maximum rates for long distance telephone service and allow discounts from those rates under certain circumstances.
In 1992, the D.C. Circuit, in an appeal from a proceeding before the FCC brought by AT&T against MCI, held that the permissive detariffing rule of the Fourth Report violated section 203 of the Communications Act. American Tel. & Tel. Co. v. FCC, 298 U.S. App. D.C. 230, 978 F.2d 727 (D.C. Cir. 1992), cert. denied sub nom., MCI Telecommunications Corp. v. American Tel. & Tel. Co., 125 L. Ed. 2d 709, 113 S. Ct. 3020 (1993). The Court also held that AT&T was entitled to a cease and desist order against MCI. Id. However, the Court remanded the case to the FCC to reconsider AT&T's damage claim against MCI. Id. at 736-37. In response to that decision, MCI began to file tariffs containing rates with a range of discounts available as well as possible further adjustments under certain limited circumstances.
The issue of MCI's liability for damages for the 1987-89 period currently is pending before the FCC. Also pending before the FCC are two counterclaims filed by AT&T against Sprint alleging that certain of Sprint's tariffs violated section 203. See US Sprint Communications Co. Ltd. Partnership v. American Tel. & Tel. Co. Communications, FCC File No. E-90-113 (filed Feb. 8, 1990); US Sprint Communications Co. Ltd. Partnership v. American Tel. & Tel. Co. Communications, FCC File No. E-91-63 (filed Feb. 19, 1991). In addition, on February 22, 1993, MCI petitioned the FCC for a declaratory ruling with respect to the potential liability for damages of nondominant carriers as a result of their past compliance with the Fourth Report.
On August 18, 1993, the FCC issued a Memorandum Opinion and Order establishing revised tariff filing requirements for nondominant common carriers. Tariff Filing Requirements for Nondominant Common Carriers, FCC Docket No. 93-36 (Aug. 18, 1993) ("Rulemaking Order"). This rulemaking became effective on August 23, 1993. See 58 Fed. Reg. 44,457 (Aug. 23, 1993) (to be codified at 47 C.F.R. §§ 43, 61) ("Final Rule"), pet. for review pending, No. 93-1590 (D.C. Cir. filed Sept. 1, 1993). The Rulemaking Order authorizes nondominant carriers to file tariffs that set forth rates "in a manner of the carrier's choosing and may include a reasonable range of rates." Rulemaking Order at 3. The FCC has found that this tariff content requirement is consistent with section 203 of the Communications Act. Id. at 20. The Rulemaking Order authorizes tariffs such as those filed by MCI in response to the AT&T v. FCC opinion. It may also sanction tariffs such as those filed by Sprint during the time-period relevant to AT&T's complaint.
AT&T brings these three complaints under section 207 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. § 207, which allows "any person claiming to be damaged by any common carrier subject to the provisions of this chapter" to recover damages in federal district court. AT&T alleges that each of the three defendants has violated section 203 of the Communications Act by providing long distance telephone service to certain customers at secretly negotiated and unfiled rates. AT&T seeks damages for the conduct of MCI and Wiltel after February 10, 1991, and for Sprint's conduct after April 11, 1991.
The primary jurisdiction doctrine allows a district court to dismiss, or stay, an action over which it has subject matter jurisdiction if it finds that an agency is better suited to make the initial decision on the issues in dispute. See, e.g., Far East Conference v. United States, 342 U.S. 570, 72 S. Ct. 492, 494-95, 96 L. Ed. 576 (1952); Allnet Communication Serv., Inc. v. National Exchange Carrier Ass'n, 296 U.S. App. D.C. 156, 965 F.2d 1118, 1120 (D.C. Cir. 1992). Courts apply the primary jurisdiction doctrine on a case by case basis in order to secure uniformity in outcomes and to obtain the benefit of the expertise and experience of administrative agencies. See, e.g., In re Long Distance Telecommunications Litig., 831 F.2d 627, 631 (6th Cir. 1987).
Courts generally consider four factors in determining whether to invoke the primary jurisdiction doctrine:
(1) whether the question at issue is within the conventional experience of judges; (2) whether the question at issue lies peculiarly within the agency's discretion or requires the exercise of agency expertise; (3) whether there exists a danger of inconsistent rulings; and (4) whether a prior application to the agency has been made.
Oasis Petroleum Corp. v. United States Dep't of Energy, 718 F.2d 1558, 1564 (Temp. Emer. Ct. App. 1983) (footnotes omitted). Upon consideration of these factors, the Court finds that it is appropriate to invoke the doctrine of primary ...