The opinion of the court was delivered by: CHARLES R. RICHEY
Before the Court in the above-captioned case are the parties' cross-Motions for Summary Judgment, as well as their oppositions and replies thereto. This case was originally filed as a preliminary injunction. On July 28, 1994 the Court held a hearing and issued an Order on August 1, 1994 which, with the parties' consent, consolidated a hearing on the Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction with a final determination on the merits of the case, pursuant to Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The parties informed the Court that there would be no dispute as to material facts and that the matter could be resolved through cross-motions for summary judgment. On September 29, 1994, the Court held a hearing on the parties' cross-motions for summary judgment.
The Plaintiff filed a preliminary injunction seeking reinstatement to the United States Merchant Marine Academy ("USMMA" or "Academy"). He was admitted to the Academy in July of 1991. Thereafter he developed diabetes but managed to complete his first year. In September of 1992, the Academy informed him that he would be disenrolled due to his medical condition. The Plaintiff argues that the Defendants' actions violate both the Maritime Education and Training Act of 1980, 46 App. U.S.C. § 1295 ("META"), and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 794 et seq. ("Section 504"). In his motion, the Plaintiff seeks a preliminary and permanent injunction requiring the Academy to reinstate Lane immediately, compensatory damages, including out-of-pocket costs, loss of professional opportunity, and pain and suffering, attorneys' fees, and costs.
Alternatively, the Plaintiff argues, in sum, that the META nowhere authorizes the per se exclusion of a student simply because he has a medical condition which precludes admission into the naval reserve, when that same condition in no way limits the student's ability to serve in the merchant marine.
He further argues that the META mandates only that students qualify for a merchant marine license -- not that they also qualify to serve in the naval reserve -- and contends that he is eligible for a merchant marine license. Moreover, the Plaintiff maintains that the Court need not afford the agency deference because it has not consistently followed their alleged practice of disenrolling cadets who fail to meet the requirements for a naval reserve commission, and because the plain language of the META demonstrates that no such practice is required. Finally, the Plaintiff asserts that Section 504 was also violated because he was denied the opportunity to complete his education at a federally funded academic institution solely because he developed a disability.
Upon careful consideration of the the papers filed by both parties for dispositive relief, the oral arguments of counsel, the applicable law, and the entire record in this case, the Court has determined that the Plaintiff's Motion shall be granted, and the Defendants' Motion shall be denied.
The Court finds that the Defendants violated Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act by disenrolling Lane solely on the basis of his diabetes and without making any attempt to reasonably accommodate his disability. The Stipulated Facts reveal that James Griffin Lane has repeatedly achieved an "outstanding" rating on the physical readiness exam administered by the Academy, that it is undisputed that James Griffin Lane may qualify for a merchant marine license if he maintains control of his diabetes, that his physician has reported that his diabetes mellitus is under "extremely good control," and that the Academy has allowed students in the past with a lost limb, a lost eye, brain damage, and color blindness to remain at the Academy and graduate despite their disabilities. Nevertheless, the Defendants now refuse to acknowledge that the Rehabilitation Act requires any reasonable accomodation -- or even an attempt to provide reasonable accommodation -- of Lane's diabetes mellitus. The Court simply cannot accept this untenable reading of the Rehabilitation Act. The Court thus finds that the Defendants have not shown that Lane has failed to meet an essential program requirement under Section 504 or, critically, that the Academy would suffer undue hardship by reasonably accommodating the diabetes mellitus of this otherwise extremely well qualified cadet.
The Defendants argue that the META dictated their disenrollment of Lane. However, the Court further finds that the plain language of the META does no such thing. Neither the statute, the regulations promulgated thereunder, nor the agency's inconsistent practices support the Defendants' position that the Academy was obliged to disenroll Lane upon discovery of his diabetes mellitus. The Court finds that, despite the Defendants' assertions to the contrary, the META contains no requirement that cadets such as Lane meet all physical requirements for a commission in the armed forces reserve or suffer unconditional expulsion from the Academy. Moreover, the Court finds that the agency's reading of the META does not warrant due deference because it is contradicted by the plain language of the statute, and because the USMMA has acted inconsistently with respect to Lane and other disabled students.
Accordingly, the Court shall order the United States Merchant Marine Academy to reinstate forthwith Plaintiff James Griffin Lane as a student at the USMMA, and shall require the Defendants to take all steps necessary to permit Lane to resume his maritime training as soon as practicable. Finally, the Court finds that the Plaintiff is entitled to compensatory damages for his injuries.
As a result of the Court's findings, judgment must be entered in favor of the Plaintiff. The Court shall issue an Order of even date herewith consistent with this Memorandum Opinion.
In 1990, the Plaintiff, James Griffin Lane, applied for an appointment to the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, a federal service academy that trains men and women to serve as commercial merchant marine officers and as commissioned officers in the United States armed forces.
As a condition of his appointment, the Plaintiff was required to undergo a physical examination to determine if he met the requisite physical qualifications. On November 29, 1990, the Department of Defense Medical Examination Review Board ("DODMERB") administered the examination. Two days earlier, the Plaintiff had submitted a medical history form which asked whether he had at any time "blood, protein, or sugar in urine;" to this, he answered "no." The results of a urinalysis test administered later by DODMERB were "negative" for sugar in the urine.
On June 4, 1991, DODMERB stamped on the Plaintiff's medical evaluation form that he was "medically qualified" and "recommended for service academies and ROTC programs," and the Plaintiff entered the Academy the next month.
On February 1, 1991, Lane consulted a private family physician and reported excessive thirst and hunger. A test showed he had an elevated blood sugar level, and the doctor directed the Plaintiff to limit his intake of calories and take an oral hypoglycemic medication to reduce his blood sugar level. Over a period of seven weeks, Lane's blood sugar level fluctuated between the normal range and higher. In September or October of that year, the Plaintiff had the flu and began to lose weight and again experience excessive thirst and hunger. In December 1991, the Plaintiff was diagnosea with diabetes mellitus by Dr. Didace Kabatsi, a private endocrinologist, who performed several tests on blood and urine samples.
On February 11, 1992, Lane visited Dr. Daniel Kalash, Chief Medical Officer at the Academy, who recorded in his notes that the Plaintiff advised that he had an "intermittent history during [the] past several months of glycosuria [sugar in the urine] and [elevated] blood sugar" and that he had been treated for his condition. He further recorded that the Plaintiff reported he was monitoring his "blood sugar in [his] barracks" and that "all findings [were] normal." Finally, he made the following notes: "Assess: Early Diabetes type I" and "Capt. Bauer notified & communicated problem to BuMed." At that time, Bauer was the Head of the Department of Naval Science at the Academy. Dr. Kalash instructed the Plaintiff to continue observing his blood sugars and report abnormalities and symptoms, and told him that he would repeat the lab workup at the end of the Plaintiff's third class, or sophomore year.
In March 1992, the Plaintiff consulted Dr. Jay Skyler, an endocrinologist at the University of Miami, and President of the American Diabetes Association. Dr. Skyler confirmed that Lane had diabetes, recommended insulin therapy, and referred him to Dr. S. Mark Tanen, an endocrinologist in Northern Virginia. In early July 1992, shortly before commencing his second year, the Plaintiff began seeing Dr. Tanen and, upon Dr. Tanen's recommendation, began insulin therapy.
In a letter dated July 23, 1992, the Plaintiff's father, J.W. Lane, Jr., notified Paul Krinsky, the Superintendent of the Academy, that his son had began taking insulin to control his diabetes. On September 4, 1992, the Plaintiff learned that a Physical Examination Review Board ("PERB") hearing had been scheduled for September 8, 1992 to determine his "medical suitability for continuance" at the Academy. The hearing was to confirm that the Plaintiff had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, as indicated in his father's July 23, 1992 letter. At the hearing, which Lane attended unaccompanied, the PERB did not evaluate the particular circumstances of Lane's case other than verify his status as a diabetic.
On September 16, 1992, the PERB advised the Superintendent of the Academy that the Plaintiff had insulin-dependent diabetes and that, under U.S. Navy commissioning standards, this was "a disqualifying condition for military service" and, accordingly, that the Plaintiff "would not be commissionable in the Navy/Merchant Marine Reserve Program." The PERB further advised, however, that Lane may not be ineligible for a Coast Guard merchant marine license as the "requirements do not seem to be as rigid as the Navy requirements but a waiver is required when an applicant is insulin-dependent and may not be automatic[;] it would depend on the specifics of the condition."
In contrast to the Department of the Navy, the United States Coast Guard grants merchant marine licenses, including those which permit holders to serve as deck officers at sea, to persons with diabetes mellitus who obtain a waiver of Coast Guard physical qualifications standards with respect to diabetes. Waivers are issued to individuals who show to the Coast Guard's satisfaction that their diabetes is under control and that they are otherwise physically qualified for a merchant marine license. As of December 1993, more than fifty persons with diabetes, some insulin-dependent, are sailing on an active merchant marine license.
On September 21, 1992, the Superintendent advised the Plaintiff that he would be separated from the Academy effective December 18, 1992, and stated that "Adult-onset (Type I) diabetes is a disqualifying condition for military service. You are not eligible for appointment as Midshipman, MMR/USNR nor for commissioning as a Naval Reserve Officer." The Superintendent advised Lane that he would be permitted to continue to take classes at the Academy through December 18, 1992, and thus complete the first half of his sophomore year. This did not include participation in shipboard training, however.
Lane achieved a 3.4 grade point average during his first year at the Academy, rowed crew, and participated in various sea-going activities, including a four to five day journey up the East Coast in a tugboat, during which storm conditions caused the boat to undergo 40 degree rolls. The Plaintiff's medical records contain no indication that he had any medical problems associated with these activities, and in November 1992, Lane achieved an "outstanding" rating on the physical readiness exam administered by the Academy, as he had achieved each time it was administered previously. In December 1992, Dr. Tanen concluded that Lane's diabetes was under "extremely good control" and noted that he had not experienced any incapacitating episodes due to his condition.
In early October 1992, the Plaintiff's father wrote to Captain Warren G. LeBack, then-Administrator of the U.S. Maritime Administration ("MARAD"), to challenge the Superintendent's decision. In a letter dated January 15, 1993, LeBack responded to the Plaintiff's request for a review of the decision, and between January 15, 1993 and April 15, 1994, the Plaintiff took steps to obtain the assurances specified in the January 15, 1993 letter.
On April 15, 1994, MARAD Administrator A.J. Herberger issued a letter to Lane stating, in part, that Lane could not meet physical qualifications standards applicable to midshipmen at the USMMA because "insulin dependent diabetes disqualifies an individual from receiving a commission in any component of the reserve of the armed forces of the United States."
STATUTES AND REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO THIS CASE
The Plaintiff claims violations of both the Maritime Education and Training Act of 1980, 46 App. U.S.C. § 1295 ("META"), and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 794 et seq. ("Section 504").
In the META, Congress assigned the United States Merchant Marine Academy a two-fold mission: "education and training of citizens of the United States who are capable of providing for the safe and efficient operation of the merchant marine of the United States at all times and as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war and national emergency." 46 U.S.C. App. § 1295(1). Moreover, the statute directs the Secretary of Navy, in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator, to assure that the training of merchant marine officers at the USMMA includes programs for "naval science training in the operation of merchant marine vessels," and that the programs be "consistent with United States Navy standards and needs." Id. § 1295(2). The Plaintiff claims that the Academy's primary mission is to serve the merchant marine, and that its secondary goal is to serve as naval and marine reserve. Thus, he contends, Congress did not categorically require that all students at all times meet naval reserve requirements, only that they at all times meet merchant marine requirements. The Defendants argue that both purposes are primary and that, therefore, the Plaintiff's inability to meet requisite physical qualifications for naval reserve status precludes him from continuing at the USMMA.
The Court finds, however, that this statutory language does not clearly lead to either conclusion. It is undisputed that Congress anticipated that the USMMA would serve both the merchant marine and the armed forces reserve. The obligations Congress imposed on cadets at the USMMA with respect to each, however, are covered by other portions of the statute. The Court thus observes that the extent of these obligations is the seminal issue posed by this dispute.
The parties' main contention is over three portions of the statute which explicitly deal with the armed forces reserve. The statute requires that "any citizen of the United States selected for appointment . . . must agree to apply for midshipman status in the United States Naval Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve) before being appointed as a cadet at the Academy." 46 U.S.C. App. § 1295b(b)(3)(F) (emphasis added). The final authority to appoint cadets to a reserve post lies with the Secretary of the Navy:
Any citizen of the United States who is appointed as a cadet at the Academy may be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a midshipman in the United States Naval Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve).
46 U.S.C. App § 1295b(c) (emphasis added).
The key statutory language at issue in this case, however, deals with a cadet's commitment agreements once he or she is appointed:
Each individual appointed as a cadet at the Academy . . . who is a citizen of the United States, shall as a condition of appointment to the Academy sign an agreement committing such individual --
(A) to complete the course of instruction at the Academy, unless the individual is separated by the Academy;
(B) to fulfill the requirements for a license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States on or before the date of graduation from the Academy of such individual;
(D) to apply for an appointment as, to accept if tendered an appointment as, and to serve as a commissioned officer in the United States Naval Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve), the United States Coast Guard Reserve, or any other Reserve unit of an armed force of the United States, for at least 6 years following the date of graduation from the Academy of such individual; and
(E) to serve in the foreign or domestic commerce and the national defense of the United States for at least 5 years following the date of graduation from the Academy
(i) as a merchant marine officer;
(ii) as an employee of the United States maritime industry, if the Secretary determines that service under (i) is not available to such individual;
(iii) as a commissioned officer on active duty in the armed forces of the United States or in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; or
(iv) any combination of (i), (ii) or (iii).
46 U.S.C. App. § 1295b(e)(1) (emphasis added).
The Plaintiff argues that this language is conditional, such that cadets only have to apply for and, if tendered, accept a commission in the armed forces reserve. The Defendants contend that this language creates a binding obligation both to serve in the naval reserve or some other armed forces reserve unit and, by implication, to meet physical requirements for such a commission.
Next, the parties focus attention on the power of the Secretary of the Navy to waive any of the statutory service obligations in cases of individual "hardship." The relevant provisions read as follows:
If the Secretary determines that any individual who has attended the Academy for not less than 2 years has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement . . . such individual may be ordered by the Secretary of the Navy to active duty in the United States Navy to serve for a period of time not to exceed 2 years. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary may waive this paragraph.
46 U.S.C. App. § 1295b(e)(2) (emphasis added).
The statute continues with a similar provision:
If the Secretary determines that any individual has failed to fulfill any part of the agreement . . . such individual may be ordered to active duty to serve a period of time not less than 3 years . . . In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary may waive this paragraph.
Id. § 1295b(e)(3)(A) (emphasis added).
While the Plaintiff argues that this language proves that Congress did not intend the per se rule that cadets qualify for the naval reserve at all times, the Defendants assert that this language only affords waiver for hardship incurred ...