Appeal from the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. (Hon. Michael L. Rankin, Trial Judge).
Before Steadman and Ruiz, Associate Judges, and Pryor, Senior Judge.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Ruiz
RUIZ, Associate Judge : Appellant Antonio Green was arrested and charged with carrying a pistol without a license and possession of an unregistered firearm and ammunition after he was stopped and frisked by a police officer. Green moved to suppress the pistol and ammunition as the product of an unconstitutional search. After the trial court denied the motion, Green pled guilty to the charges, reserving his right to appeal the denial of the suppression motion. Because the trial court erred in denying the suppression motion, we reverse.
The government defended the stop and search as lawful pursuant to Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968), and its progeny, which require a reasonable, articulable suspicion that criminal activity is afoot and the person stopped is armed and dangerous. The parties agree that on appeal from the trial court's decision in such a case, although the "facts and all reasonable inferences therefrom must be viewed in favor of sustaining the trial court's ruling," Peay v. United States, 597 A.2d 1318, 1320 (D.C. 1991) (en banc), the ultimate Conclusion as to the existence of reasonable suspicion is a matter of law for this court to decide. Lewis v. United States, 632 A.2d 383, 385 (D.C. 1993).
At the suppression hearing, the government presented as its only witness Officer Edward Torrence, who made the stop and conducted the search. Green presented no evidence. The trial court made the following findings, which we find are supported by the record: Torrence and three other officers were parked in a car in the 3200 block of Wheeler Road, Southeast, for the purpose of investigating reports of gunfire. After observing the activities in the area, the officers alighted from their vehicle and stopped several individuals in front of an apartment building.
While they had those persons detained on the ground, Torrence looked up and saw that Green was about to come out of the building. When Green saw the activity outside, however, he backed into the building. Green also placed something into his pocket, but Torrence could not tell what it was. Torrence told Green to stop and identified himself as a police officer. Green did not stop, however, and continued his retreat into the building.
Another person in the building let Torrence inside. Torrence followed Green as he retreated and ultimately stopped Green when Torrence found him in the basement, "peeping around the corner." At that point, Torrence brought Green out of the building and frisked him, finding the pistol giving rise to the charges and the suppression motion.
At the outset, we must ascertain when the Terry stop occurred. Smith v. United States, 558 A.2d 312, 314 (D.C. 1989) (en banc). For a long time in this jurisdiction, as in others, the rule had been that the stop occurred upon the police officer's display of authority. See, e.g., id.; In re D.J., 532 A.2d 138, 140 (D.C. 1987) (holding that start of police pursuit is sufficient display of authority to constitute seizure). Under that test, Torrence's direction while he was still outside the building that Green stop would arguably have been the moment of seizure. The law changed when the Supreme Court held, in California v. Hodari D., 111 S. Ct. 1547, 1550 (1991), that a seizure does not occur in the absence of an application of physical force unless the subject actually yields. Hence, no seizure in the constitutional sense occurred in this case until Torrence actually stopped Green in the basement of the apartment building.
The question becomes whether Torrence had a reasonable, articulable suspicion that Green was engaged in criminal activity and was armed and dangerous, justifying both the stop and the search. Terry, supra, 392 U.S. at 30. The government in its brief points to the following factors to support such suspicion: (1) "reports of an ongoing dispute involving guns and of gunshots in the vicinity of the 3200 block of Wheeler Road"; (2) Torrence observed Green "placing a small, dark object in his coat pocket immediately after being spotted by the police"; (3) Green attempted to "evade the police."
In evaluating whether these facts establish grounds for reasonable suspicion, we "examine all these factors both individually and collectively, for to adequately evaluate the whole, it is helpful to evaluate the constituent parts." Smith, supra, 558 A.2d at 314. We bear in mind, however, that "even if each specific act by a suspect could be perceived in isolation as an innocent act, 'the observing police officer may see a combination of facts that make out an articulable suspicion.'" Peay, 597 A.2d at 1320 (quoting United States v. Bennett, 514 A.2d 414, 416 (D.C. 1986)). "The circumstances 'are to be viewed through the eyes of a reasonable and cautious police officer on the scene, guided by his experience and training.'" Id. at 1322 (quoting United States v. Young, 194 U.S. App. D.C. 377, 379, 598 F.2d 296, 298 (1979)).
The government's reliance on the fact that the officers had been assigned to the scene based on a report of a dispute involving guns and gunshots is misplaced. It is true that we have had occasion in finding articulable suspicion to rely in part upon testimony that a particular area has a high incidence of crime. See, e.g., Cousart v. United States, 618 A.2d 96, 100 (D.C. 1992) (en banc) ("high drug area"). In the present case, however, the court made no finding and the government presented no evidence that the neighborhood in which Green was seized was such a place. Instead, there was merely a report of gun activity in the general area at some unspecified time. Torrence had learned of that report during roll call earlier that day. There was no evidence regarding the lapse of time between the report and Torrence's seizure of Green, nor about the specific location of the previous gun dispute. There was not even any evidence regarding what, if anything, was found on those persons Torrence and his colleagues had already detained.
In Cauthen v. United States, 592 A.2d 1021, 1023-24 (D.C. 1991), we rejected the government's reliance on evidence of a citizen tip concerning illegal activity at a certain street intersection to justify a Terry stop that occurred a mere fifteen minutes later at the same intersection. We said "the lack of specificity in the tip leaves too much uncertainty whether the persons the police saw at the corner were the same ones the caller had identified." Id. at 1024. The circumstance of the tip was insufficient despite evidence that the defendant had been part of a group that dispersed as soon as the police arrived on the ...