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Pigford v. Glickman

January 6, 1999

TIMOTHY C. PIGFORD, ET AL., PLAINTIFFS,
v.
DAN GLICKMAN, SECRETARY, THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, DEFENDANT.
CECIL BREWINGTON, ET AL., PLAINTIFFS,
v.
DANIEL R. GLICKMAN, DEFENDANT.



The opinion of the court was delivered by: Paul L. Friedman United States District Judge

CONSENT DECREE

WHEREAS the parties desire to resolve amicably all the claims raised in these suits, including the plaintiffs' claims under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act ("ECOA"), 15 U.S.C. § 1691, et seq., and the Administrative Procedure Act ("APA"), 5 U.S.C. § 551, et seq.; and

WHEREAS the parties have agreed upon mutually satisfactory terms for the complete resolution of all the claims that have, or could have, been asserted by the plaintiffs in this litigation; and

WHEREAS, in light of the remedial purposes of this Consent Decree, the parties intend that it be liberally construed to effectuate those purposes in a manner that is consistent with law; and

WHEREAS the parties have entered into this Consent Decree for the purpose of ensuring that in their dealings with USDA, all class members receive full and fair treatment that is the same as the treatment accorded to similarly situated white persons;

NOW THEREFORE, the plaintiffs and the defendant, Dan Glickman, Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture ("USDA"), hereby consent to the entry of this decree with the following terms:

1. Definitions

The following terms shall have the following meanings for purposes of this Consent Decree.

(a) The term "adjudicator" shall mean (i) the person or persons who is/are assigned by the facilitator to undertake the initial review of, and where appropriate make recommended decision on Track A claims under ¶ 9, below; and (ii) JAMS-Endispute, Inc., which shall make the final decision in all Track A claims and resolve issues of tolling under ¶ 6, below.

(b) The term "arbitrator" shall mean Michael K. Lewis of ADR Associates, and the other person or persons selected by Mr. Lewis who meet qualifications agreed upon by the parties and by Mr. Lewis and whom Mr. Lewis assigns to decide Track B claims under ¶ 10, below.

(c) The term "claimant" shall mean any person who submits a claim package for relief under the terms of this Consent Decree.

(d) The term "claim package" shall mean the materials sent to claimants who request them in connection with submitting a claim for relief under the provisions of this Consent Decree. The claim package will include (i) a claim sheet and election form and a Track A Adjudication claim affidavit, copies of which are attached hereto as Exhibit A; and (ii) associated documentation and instructions.

(e) The term "class counsel" shall mean Alexander J. Pires, Jr. and Phillip L. Fraas, Lead Counsel for members of the class defined in ¶ 2(a), infra. In addition, the following counsel and law firms have been acting, and will continue to act, as Of Counsel in this case: J.L. Chestnut, of Chestnut, Sanders, Sanders & Pettaway, P.C., Selma, AL.; T. Roe Frazer of Langston, Frazer, Sweet & Freese, P.A., Jackson, MS.; Hubbard Saunders, IV, of The Terney Firm, Jackson, MS.; Othello Cross, of Cross, Kearney & McKissic, Pine Bluff, AR., Gerard Lear of Speiser Krause, Arlington, VA.; and William J. Smith, Fresno, CA.

(f) The term "credit" shall mean the right granted by a creditor to a debtor to defer payment of debt or to incur debt and defer its payment or to purchase property or services and defer payment therefor.

(g) The term "defendant's counsel" shall mean the United States Department of Justice.

(h) The term "discrimination complaint" shall mean a communication from a class member directly to USDA, or to a member of Congress, the White House, or a state, local or federal official who forwarded the class member's communication to USDA, asserting that USDA had discriminated against the class member on the basis of race in connection with a federal farm credit transaction or benefit application.

(i) The term "facilitator" shall mean the Poorman-Douglas Corporation, which shall receive claims pursuant to this Consent Decree and assign claims to adjudicators and arbitrators for final resolution. The parties may, by agreement and without the Court's approval, assign to the facilitator such additional tasks related to the implementation of this Consent Decree as they deem appropriate.

(j) The term "preponderance of the evidence" shall mean such relevant evidence as is necessary to prove that something is more likely true than not true.

(k) The term "priority consideration" means that an application will be given first priority in processing, and with respect to the availability of funds for the type of loan at issue among all similar applications filed at the same time; provided, however, that all applications to be given priority consideration will be of equal status.

(l) The term "substantial evidence" shall mean such relevant evidence as appears in the record before the adjudicator that a reasonable person might accept as adequate to support a conclusion after taking into account other evidence in the record that fairly detracts from that conclusion. Substantial evidence is a lower standard of proof than preponderance of the evidence.

(m) The term "USDA" shall include the United States Department of Agriculture and all of its agencies, instrumentalities, agents, officers, and employees, including, but not limited to the state and county committees which administer USDA credit programs, and their staffs.

(n) The term "USDA listening session" shall mean one of the meetings of farmers and USDA's representatives conducted by USDA's Civil Rights Action Team between January 6, 1997 and January 24, 1997.

2. Class Definition

(a) Pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(3) the Court hereby certifies a class defined as follows:

All African American farmers who (1) farmed, or attempted to farm, between January 1, 1981 and December 31, 1996; (2) applied to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) during that time period for participation in a federal farm credit or benefit program and who believed that they were discriminated against on the basis of race in USDA's response to that application; and (3) filed a discrimination complaint on or before July 1, 1997, regarding USDA's treatment of such farm credit or benefit application.

(b) Any putative class member who does not wish to have his claims adjudicated through the procedure established by this Consent Decree may, pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(c)(2), request to be excluded from the class. To be effective, the request must be in writing and filed with the facilitator within 120 days of the date on which this Consent Decree is entered.

3. Duties of Facilitator

(a) Poorman-Douglas Corporation shall serve as the facilitator and shall perform the following functions:

(i) publish the Notice of Class Settlement in the manner prescribed in ¶ 4, below;

(ii) mail claim packages to claimants who request them;

(iii) process completed claim packages as they are received;

(iv) determine, pursuant to the terms of this Consent Decree, which claimants satisfy the class definition as contained in ¶ 2(a);

(v) transmit to adjudicators claim packages submitted by claimants who contend that they are entitled to participate in the claims process due to equitable tolling of ECOA's statute of limitations under the particular circumstances of their claim;

(vi) transmit to the adjudicator the claims packages of class members with ECOA claims who elect to proceed under Track A;

(vii) transmit to the arbitrator the claims packages of class members with ECOA claims who elect to proceed under Track B;

(viii) transmit to the adjudicator the claims packages of class members who assert only non-credit benefit claims; and

(ix) maintain and operate a toll-free telephone number to provide information to interested persons about the procedure for filing claims under this Consent Decree.

(b) The facilitator's fees and expenses shall be paid by USDA.

4. Class Notice Procedure

(a) Within 10 days after the entry of the Order granting preliminary approval of this Consent Decree the facilitator shall mail a copy of the Notice of Class Certification and Proposed Class Settlement (a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit B) to all then-known members of the class.

(b) As soon as possible after entry of the Order granting preliminary approval of this Consent Decree the facilitator shall take the following steps:

(i) arrange to have 44 commercials announcing the preliminary approval of the Consent Decree and the time and place of the fairness hearing aired on the Black Entertainment Network, and 18 similar commercials on Cable News Network, during a two-week period;

(ii) arrange to have one-quarter page advertisements announcing the preliminary approval of the Consent Decree and the time and place of the fairness hearing placed in 27 general circulation newspapers, and 115 African-American newspapers, in an 18-state region during a two-week period; and

(iii) arrange to have a full page advertisement announcing the preliminary approval of the Consent Decree and the time and place of the fairness hearing placed in the editions of TV Guide that are distributed in an 18-state region, and a half page advertisement in the national edition of Jet Magazine.

(c) USDA shall use its best efforts to obtain the assistance of community based organizations, including those organizations that focus on African-American and/or agricultural issues, in communicating to class members and potential class members the fact that the Court has preliminarily approved this Consent Decree and the time and place of the fairness hearing.

5. Class Membership Screening; Election by Claimant; Processing.

(a) The facilitator shall send claim packages to claimants who request them.

(b) To be eligible to obtain relief pursuant to this Consent Decree, a claimant must complete the claim sheet and return it and any supporting documentation to the facilitator. The claimant must also provide to the facilitator evidence, in the form described below, that he filed a discrimination complaint between January 1, 1981 and July 1, 1997:

(i) a copy of the discrimination complaint the claimant filed with USDA, or a copy of a USDA document referencing the discrimination complaint; or

(ii) a declaration executed pursuant to 28 U.S.C. ยง 1746 by a person who is not a member of the ...


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