subjected to mock executions (e.g., by firing squad or the dry
firing of weapons pointed at their heads) several times during
their detention. Even after being removed from the plane, the
plaintiff hostages were held under armed guard in inhumane
surroundings, witnessed acts of torture and brutality inflicted
upon other prisoners, and lived in constant fear for their
lives. Because of the terrifying intensity associated with the
hijacking itself, as well as their subsequent detention, and the
resulting permanent psychic damage they exhibit today, the Court
concludes that a per diem calculation of damages is less
appropriate than a lump sum award embracing the totality of
their experience. Accordingly, this Court will award Kurt
Carlson and Clinton Suggs $1,500,000.00 each, and Stuart Dahl,
Jeffery Ingalls, Tony Watson, and Kenneth Bowen $1,000,000
apiece for injuries suffered at the hands of the agents of the
With regard to the claims for loss of consortium by the
Carlson spouses, while they were without their husbands for a
relatively short period of time, it is clear that the experience
has had a detrimental and disturbing effect on their
relationships. Their formerly healthy husbands returned
estranged and incapable of participating in the marriage with
the same physical and emotional warmth they previously
displayed. To varying degrees, each of the plaintiff hostages
continues to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder and
related behavioral disorders (e.g., violent nightmares,
hypervigilance, uncontrollable tempers, impatience) that serve
to interfere with their ability to function normally within any
social relationship, including marriage. Therefore, this Court
concludes that the Carlson spouses are entitled to damages for
loss of consortium and solatium and will award them $200,000
each. Compare with Hill 175 F. Supp.2d at 48 (awarding spouses
of Americans "detained" by Iraqi authorities between $100,000
Plaintiffs also request an award of punitive damages against
defendant MOIS for its role in providing support and resources
to Hizballah and Amal.*fn21 As in previous cases, the
evidence clearly inculpates MOIS as the instigator and financier
of terrorist acts by Hizballah and Amal in this case. The
hostage taking, torture, and killing of innocent
non-belligerents for political ends constitutes unconscionable
conduct in any civilized society. Accordingly, the Court finds
that not only are punitive damages authorized under the FSIA to
punish the MOIS for its continued role in fomenting terrorist
activity, and to the extent possible deter it from future
criminal behavior, see 28 U.S.C. § 1606, but that the MOIS's
role in sponsoring the agents responsible for the instant acts
of terrorism warrants such an award. Consistent with this
Court's prior experience and a calculation equivalent to
approximately three times the estimated annual budget of MOIS
for support of terrorism as testified to by Dr. Richard
Clausen,*fn22 the Court will assess punitive damages in the
amount of $300,000,000 against the MOIS, to be awarded to all
plaintiffs jointly and severally.
ORDERED, that judgment be entered in favor of the plaintiffs
against the Islamic
Republic of Iran and its Ministry of Information and Security,
jointly and severally, for compensatory damages as follows:
Estate of Robert Stethem: $2,404,665.00.
Richard Stethem: $5,000,000.00.
Patricia Stethem: $5,000,000.00.
Sheryl Sierralta: $3,000,000.00.
Kenneth Stethem: $3,000,000.00.
Patrick Stethem: $3,000,000.00.
Kurt Carlson: $1,500,000.00.
Cheryl Carlson: $200,000.00.
Stuart Dahl: $1,000,000.00.
Martha Dahl: $200,000.00.
Jeffery Ingalls: $1,000,000.00.
Clinton Suggs: $1,500,000.00.
Chantal Gautier: $200,000.00.
Tony Watson: $1,000,000.00.
Pamala Watson: $200,000.00.
Kenneth Bowen: $1,000,000.00.
IT IS FURTHER ORDERED, that judgment be entered in favor of
plaintiffs, jointly and severally, against the defendant Iranian
Ministry of Information and Security for punitive damages in the
amount of $300,000,000; and it is
FURTHER ORDERED, that the Clerk of Court forthwith enter
judgments in accordance with the foregoing;*fn23 and it is
FURTHER ORDERED, that plaintiffs may arrange for this Decision
and Order to be translated into Farsi and, at plaintiffs'
request, the Clerk's Office shall cause a copy of the translated
Decision and Order to be transmitted to the U.S. Department of
State for service upon defendants through diplomatic channels.