The opinion of the court was delivered by: Gladys Kessler, United States District Court Judge
This matter is now before the Court on Joint Defendants'*fn1 Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on Advertising, Marketing, Promotion, and Warning Claims and the United States' Cross Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on Affirmative Defenses. The Defendants*fn2 seek summary judgment as to the United States' advertising, marketing, promotion and warning claims on the basis that these claims are within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC" or "the Agency"). The United States seeks summary judgment as to all of Defendants' affirmative defenses premised upon the FTC's purportedly exclusive jurisdiction.
Upon consideration of the Motions, Oppositions and the entire record herein, and for the reasons stated below, the Joint Defendants' Motion is denied and the Government's Cross Motion is granted in part and denied in part.
Plaintiff, the United States of America ("the Government") has brought this suit against the Defendants pursuant to Sections 1962(c) and (d) of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act ("RICO), 18 U.S.C. § 1961 et seq.*fn3 Defendants are manufacturers of cigarettes and other tobacco-related entities. The Government seeks injunctive relief and billions of dollars for what it alleges to be an unlawful conspiracy to deceive the American public.
The Government's Amended Complaint describes a four-decade long conspiracy, dating from at least 1953, to intentionally and willfully deceive and mislead the American public. According to the Government, the underlying strategy Defendants adopted was to deny that smoking caused disease and to consistently maintain that whether smoking caused disease was an "open question." Am. Compl. at ¶ 34. In furtherance of the strategy, Defendants allegedly issued deceptive press releases, published false and misleading articles, destroyed and concealed documents which indicated that there was in fact a correlation between smoking and disease, and aggressively targeted children as potential new smokers. Am. Compl. at ¶ 36.
The Government also alleges that over the course of the conspiracy, Defendants have made false and misleading statements concerning the addictiveness of nicotine. Defendants continually denied that nicotine is addictive, even in the face of what the Government calls overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Am. Compl. at ¶¶ 71-72. Defendants allegedly have taken actions to make cigarettes even more addictive by manipulating and increasing the potency of nicotine in their cigarettes. Am. Compl. at ¶ 77. Nevertheless, Defendants have repeatedly denied that they manipulated the level of nicotine in their products. Am. Compl. at ¶ 79.
The Government also alleges that Defendants have used deceptive marketing to exploit smokers' desire for less hazardous products and have "misled consumers by marketing products that consumers believe are less harmful, even though they are not." Am. Compl. at ¶ 83. For example, according to the Government, Defendants have marketed "light" or "low tar/low nicotine" cigarettes as being less hazardous to smokers even though there is no basis for believing they are safer than other cigarettes. Am. Compl. at ¶ 86.
II. SUMMARY JUDGMENT STANDARD
Under Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, summary judgment is appropriate if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c). Material facts are those that "might affect the outcome of the suit under the governing law." Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986). In considering a summary judgment motion, "the evidence of the non-movant is to be believed, and all justifiable inferences are to be drawn in his favor." Id. at 255; see also Washington Post Co. v. United States Dep't of Health and Human Servs., 865 F.2d 320, 325 (D.C. Cir. 1989). In the pending Motions, we are concerned with issues of law, rather than factual disputes.
A. Overlapping Federal Statutes Must Each Be Given Effect Unless They
When two federal statutes overlap, courts must give effect to both, if at all possible. United States v. Borden Co., 308 U.S. 188
, 198 (1939). Only if there is a "positive repugnancy" between overlapping statutes may a court regard one of them as impliedly repealed by the other. Id. Even then, the repeal of one federal statute by another conflicting one is effected only "to the extent of the repugnancy." Id. at 199. Mere overlap between or among federal statutes is not enough to show that one of ...