innumerable articles and books on brain imaging,
summarized the plaintiff's brain imaging studies. Tr.
2/46. Dr. Naidich explained that the plaintiff's
imaging studies unequivocally demonstrate that the
accident caused by the defendant inflicted extensive
brain tissue damage that permanently altered the
configuration of the plaintiff's brain, including the
cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum. Tr. 2/47-50,
2/53-54. Specifically, the MRI and CT films show
skull base fractures on the right and left sides, the
absence of the right frontal lobe, and hemorrhagic
damage and scarring in the basal ganglia affecting
the putamen, globus pallidus, caudate and the
internal and external capsules. Tr. 2/46-48. In
addition, there has been partial loss and damage to
the crossing fibers of the commissure or corpus
collosum, the lenticular nucleus, the midbrain, the
fibers connecting the brain and spinal cord, the
cerebral peduncles, and the thalamus, as well as
fractures of the bones in the left ear. Tr. 2/48-58.
A comparison of the MRI films of February 28, 1997
with the MRI films of December 16, 1999 shows that
the accident caused substantial scarring and atrophic
volume loss of the right superior frontal gyrus,
middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus and to some
extent the right postcentral gyrus. Tr. 2/56. In the
wake of the trauma to the brain, multiple hemorrhages
resulted in diffuse bleeding in various areas of the
brain and when those areas liquified as part of the
necrotic process they left behind multiple cavities.
Tr. 2/53-54. P.E.T. scanning performed on February
16, 2000 confirmed the absence of functional brain
activity in many of these areas. Pl.'s Ex. 10.
27. Dr. Anthony, J. Caputy, a neurosurgeon, Dr.
Naidich, Dr. Richard N. Edelson, a neurologist, and
Dr. Paul Fedio, a neuropsychologist, explained the
functional significance of the loss of these
neuroanatomical regions of the plaintiff's brain. Tr.
1/34-36, 1/46, 1/51-52, 2/16, 2/21-23, 2/27-32, 2/53,
2/145, 3/45. The extensive damage to the plaintiff's
brain has resulted in serious impairment of higher
cortical functions, neurocognitive deficits, and
multiple neuromuscular disabilities with paralysis,
paresis, and contractures of the musculoskeletal
system in the torso, head, and four extremities. Id.
The brain injury has rendered the plaintiff
quadriparetic and resulted in a complete loss of
mobility such that he now requires wheel-chair
transportation plus assistance in making all transfers
between wheelchair, bed, and bathing facilities. Tr.
2/23-29, 2/45, 3/45-46. The damage also has resulted
in the inability of the plaintiff's brain to process
and retain information, as well as a loss of ability
to integrate information received from sensory and
motor experience. Id. The absence of the plaintiff's
right frontal cerebral area has caused him to
encounter great difficulty in cognition, thinking and
control of impulses. Id.; Tr. 2/147-49. According to
Dr. Naidich, the body has much less ability to
compensate when a person has suffered bilateral or
multifocal injuries, making it more likely to have