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August 29, 2005.

LESLIE ATKINS, individually and d/b/a LESLIE ATKINS COMMUNICATIONS, Plaintiff,
BENSON J. FISCHER, et al., Defendants.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: COLLEEN KOTELLY, District Judge


Plaintiff Leslie Atkins, d/b/a Leslie Atkins Communications, Inc., brought this action against Defendants Benson J. Fischer, the Fischer Organization, Inc., and the Fischer Brewing Company, Inc. (collectively, "Defendants"), alleging copyright infringement in the commercial use of six-pack carrier and bottle designs for a product called "Redneck Beer" in violation of the Copyright Act of 1973, 17 U.S.C. § 102, and Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a). Currently before the Court is Plaintiff's Motion for Finding that Defendants and Their Prior Counsel, Stanley Goldschmidt, Esquire, Attempted to Perpetrate a Fraud Against This Court and For an Award of Appropriate Sanctions, the separate Oppositions filed by Defendants and Mr. Goldschmidt, and Plaintiff's Combined Reply. Also pending before the Court is Mr. Goldschmidt's Motion for Sanctions Against Plaintiff for Violation of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11, and Plaintiff's subsequent Opposition.

Upon a searching examination of the parties' respective filings, all attached exhibits, the relevant case law, and the entire record herein, the Court shall grant-in-party and deny-in-part Plaintiff's motion and shall deny Mr. Goldschmidt's motion for sanctions.*fn1 Given the present posture of the case, the Court shall set a status conference in order to set out the scheduling groundwork for the upcoming trial on the merits in the above-captioned action.


  A. Procedural History

  Plaintiff Leslie Atkins, d/b/a Leslie Atkins Communications, Inc., has for over twenty years, offered clients a wide range of public relations, advertising, and marketing services. Defendant Benson J. Fischer, an entrepreneur planning to produce a novelty beer,*fn2 dubbed "Redneck Beer," hired Plaintiff during September of 1993 to design a bottle label and a six-pack carrier for his anticipated beer. Under the first stage of the relevant agreement, Plaintiff delivered to Defendant Fischer a preliminary illustration of a beer bottle label featuring a blue jean pocket and a red bandana. The second phase of the agreement, which required Plaintiff to produce the same label and carrier in "camera-ready" final form, was never completed, and the agreement was terminated. Between August 1995 and June 1996, Redneck Beer was proudly sold in fine stores in thirty-four (34) states across the United States using a bottle label and carrier designed by a third-party which also featured a denim pocket and a red bandana.

  Contending that the subsequent design infringed upon her copyrighted work, Plaintiff filed her Complaint in this action in March 1998. After the close of discovery, pursuant to a Memorandum Opinion and Order dated November 30, 2001, this Court denied Plaintiff's motion for summary judgment and sua sponte granted summary judgment for Defendants. See Atkins v. Fischer, Civ. No. 98-800, at 33-34 (D.D.C. Nov. 30, 2001) (order granting summary judgment to Defendants). The Court concluded that (1) Defendants had an implied nonexclusive license to use Plaintiff's work in the commercial production of Redneck Beer; and (2) the six-pack carrier design actually used by Defendants in the sale of Redneck Beer was not substantially similar to Plaintiff's preliminary designs. Id. In addition, the Court dismissed Plaintiff's Lanham Act claim. Id. Upon appeal, the D.C. Circuit determined that (1) an issue of material fact existed as to whether Defendants had an implied license to use Plaintiff's marketing design for production, and (2) an issue of material fact also existed as to whether Plaintiff's marketing copy and the actual production copy of the six-pack carrier were "substantially similar." See Atkins v. Fischer, 331 F.3d 988, 993-995 (D.C. Cir. 2003). Given these substantial issues of material fact, the D.C. Circuit reversed this Court's November 30, 2001 ruling and remanded the case to this Court for further consideration. Id. at 995.

  While trial in this case appeared imminent after the decision by the Court of Appeals, Defendants immediately filed a motion to stay litigation pending resolution of bankruptcy proceedings. On November 18, 2003, this Court granted Defendants' motion to stay as it related to Defendant Benson Fischer. On April 19, 2004, Defendants informed the Court that Defendant Fischer had consented to relief from the automatic bankruptcy stay and that this case would now move forward. On June 18, 2004, Plaintiff filed her current Motion for Sanctions. The Court then held a status conference with the parties on June 30, 2004, wherein the Court was informed that this case could not proceed to trial until the Motion for Sanctions was resolved. However, an expedient resolution of Plaintiff's motion was thwarted by Defendants' Motion for an Order Directing Plaintiff's Counsel to Allow Access to Discovery Documents — a motion filed by Defendants' new counsel, who had determined that a "substantial amount of discovery related materials" were missing from the files handed over to them by Defendants' previous attorneys. See Defs.' Mot. for Order to Allow Access at 2. Defendants sought to have Plaintiff provide them with access to her copies of the missing documents, which Defendants would then copy at their own expense; however, these requests were rebuffed by Plaintiff's counsel. Id. at 3. Importantly, while Defendants acknowledged that the missing documents "are not of plaintiff's making," they stressed that they could not mount a proper defense of Plaintiff's Motion for Sanctions without the documents — many of which could only be obtained from Plaintiff. Id. at 4.

  In order to resolve this dilemma, the Court issued a Memorandum Opinion and Order on August 17, 2004, which focused on the fact that "Defendants cannot respond to Plaintiff's motion, or defend themselves in a potential future trial, without the full record in this case." Atkins v. Fischer, Civ. No. 98-800, at 3 (D.D.C. Aug. 17, 2004) (order requiring Plaintiff's counsel to provide Defendants access to those documents Defendants could not obtain through any other source). Noting the burden on Plaintiff — whose "attorney works in a small office with few resources to handle Defendants' request" — the Court ordered that "Defendants shall be permitted access to Plaintiff's files to obtain only those documents that they do not have in their own files and that cannot be obtained from other sources." Id. In return for this privilege, the Court ordered "that Defendants be required to compensate Plaintiff's counsel not only for the costs of copying documents, but also for the time that Plaintiff's counsel's representatives must expend in order to locate and prepare the documents for Defendants." Id. at 4. Finally, the Court directed that "Plaintiff shall estimate how much it will cost to complete this project and provide this estimate to Defendant[s] prior to beginning work on the project. Plaintiff shall endeavor to minimize the expense of this undertaking by utilizing low-level staff where possible." Id.

  Despite the Court's even-handed, clear bargain, progress in this process immediately broke down. Plaintiff filed a Motion for Clarification of the Court's Order on September 7, 2004, in which she announced that her counsel would copy all identified documents "except for documents produced by the Fischer defendants themselves in this case — almost all of which Defendants now claim are `missing,'" Pl.'s Mem. in Support of Her Mot. for Clarification at 2. Plaintiff further asserted that Mr. Fischer (on behalf of Defendants), Mr. Stanley Goldschmit, Esq., former counsel to Defendants, and Mr. Richard Schimel, Esq., successor counsel, must each "file affidavits attesting that they do not have the Fischer and Fischer Companies' documents that were supplied in discovery and after conducting a diligent search to include agents and their representatives, they have been unable to locate the same." Id. at 1. Asserting that Plaintiff was unilaterally altering this Court's August 17, 2004 Order and imposing additional requirements, Defendants immediately objected to Plaintiff's actions and threatened a motion for sanctions on their own. The Court was then forced to resolve this dispute through another Memorandum Opinion and Order, dated December 1, 2004. In this Order, the Court required

that Plaintiff provide Defendants access to or copies of all materials requested by Defendants which are outlined in the Status Report filed on September 15, 2004. No affidavits are required from Defendant[s], though Defendant[s] [are] under a continuing ethical obligation to inform Plaintiff if any of these materials requested are actually within their possession. Plaintiff must give Defendants access to or copies of these materials by no later than Thursday, December 23, 2004, or [her] pending Motion for Finding that Defendants and Their Prior Counsel, Stanley Goldschmidt, Esquire, Attempted to Perpetrate a Fraud Against this Court and for Appropriate Sanctions will be denied by the Court. The previous scheme created by the Court's August 17, 2004, Opinion and Order, which provided compensation for Plaintiff's counsel and staff for preparing the documents and copying them, will remain in place.
Atkins v. Fischer, Civ. No. 98-800, at 13-14 (D.D.C. Dec. 1, 2004) (order denying Plaintiff's Motion for Clarification) (emphasis in original).

  The Court's December 1, 2004 Opinion and Order, which constituted a global resolution of all pending production-related disputes, apparently had the intended impact, as separate Status Reports filed by both Plaintiff and Defendants on January 6th and 7th, 2005, indicated that Defendants were ultimately provided the necessary requested materials. The Court then entered a briefing schedule to complete the briefing of Plaintiff's Motion for Sanctions; Defendants filed their Opposition on February 7, 2005, while Plaintiff filed her Reply on February 21, 2005. At the same time that the production-related disputes were reaching a simmering point in this case, Defendants former counsel, Mr. Stanley H. Goldschmidt, Esq., filed a cross-motion for sanctions against Plaintiff on August 31, 2004, and Plaintiff filed an Opposition to that motion on September 13, 2004. The Court stayed consideration of that motion until it could resolve Plaintiff's Motion for Sanctions concurrently. Given that Plaintiff's Motion for Sanctions is now fully briefed, nearly one (1) year after it was initially filed, the Court can resolve both fully briefed sanctions-related motions.

  B. Factual Context of the Sanctions-Based Motions

  Plaintiff's Motion for Sanctions, now fully ripe, asserts that "there is compelling reason to believe that Plaintiff Benson Fischer ("Fischer") and his former attorney, Stanley Goldschmidt, Esq., attempted to perpetrate a fraud upon this Court by fabricating evidence and hiding material evidence during discovery which, among other things, would have precluded this Court's grant of summary judgment." Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 1. According to Plaintiff, absent Defendants' fraud, "Plaintiff's appeal would have been unnecessary." Id. As such, Plaintiff contends that "[a]n award of appropriate sanctions to include entry of default judgment, an award of substantial attorneys' fees, and referral of Mr. Fischer's conduct to the United States Attorney's Office is in order." Id.

  Plaintiff's argument for the draconian sanction of default judgment rests upon four (4) major contentions.

  1. History of Misconduct in Contemporaneous, Related Litigations

  First, Plaintiff cites to the "history of misconduct" by Mr. Fischer and his former attorney, Mr. Goldschmidt, "in other contemporaneous litigation." Id. at 4. Plaintiff points to two different cases, coetaneous to this case, in which Messrs. Fischer and Goldschmidt were sanctioned for misconduct: (1) Fischer Brewing Co. v. Flax, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, Civ. No. 678-97, aff'd, Fischer v. Estate of Howard L. Flax, 816 A.2d 1 (2003); and (2) In re Fischer, United States Bankruptcy Court of the District of Maryland, Case No. 03-13704-DK. Id. at 4, 9. The Fischer v. Flax litigation dealt with a breach of contract lawsuit by Mr. Fischer against (1) Mr. Howard Flax, who signed an agreement with Mr. Fischer providing for a substantial finder's fee if Mr. Flax was able to locate financing for the Fischer Brewing Company and Redneck Beer, and (2) the law firm representing Mr. Flax, Paley Rothman. Id. at 4-5. During the Fischer v. Flax litigation, Superior Court Judge Steffen W. Graae, after a bench trial on the "bad faith litigation" counterclaim, sanctioned Mr. Fischer for almost $930,000.00 in attorney's fees and costs for bad faith litigation and $40,000.00 in punitive damages. Pl.'s Reply at 1-2. Judge Graae concluded that Mr. Fischer's suit "rests on false allegations, fraudulent documentation, and a stubborn refusal to acknowledge wrongdoing, the suit represents the grossest kind of abuse of the legal process." Id. at 2; Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions, Ex. 3 (May 3, 2000 Opinion and Order) at 23. Specifically, Judge Graae found that "the evidence is clear and convincing that Mr. Fischer knowingly constructed a fraudulent suit against Flax and [his] lawyers," Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions, Ex. 3 (May 3, 2000 Opinion and Order) at 21. Judge Graae also focused on the fact that Mr. Fischer's actions "raise[d] questions about efforts he may have made to manipulate witnesses and lawyers in this case," id. at 19-20. Finally, in his separate award of punitive damages against Mr. Fischer, Judge Graae found that "[i]t is obvious that an oath to tell the truth means little or nothing to Mr. Fischer and that he is still intent on manipulating the legal process." Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions, Ex. 5 (Dec. 18, 2000 Order and Judgment).

  Judge Graae also awarded Rule 11 sanctions against Mr. Goldschmidt, who represented Mr. Fischer in Fischer v. Flax, and his co-counsel, Mr. Arthur Kahn, Esq., in the sum of $50,000.00. Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions, Ex. 6 (Dec. 2, 2003 Opinion and Order). Judge Graae concluded that Mr. "Goldschmidt and Mr. Kahn served as nothing more than mouthpieces for the threats Mr. Fischer made. . . . Goldschmidt's and Mr. Kahn's pleadings may have satisfied Mr. Fischer's thirst for vengeance, but they did not meet the legal or factual standards contemplated by Rule 11." Id. at 11. Judge Graae went on to find that "the Court considers the professional conduct of Goldschmidt and Mr. Kahn to be well beyond the pale. These two experienced lawyers knew, or had to know, they did not have sufficient evidence to make a case for tortious interference by Mr. Mark and his law firm, Paley Rothman. . . . The Court can only characterize their conduct as willful and badly motivated." Id. at 13-14. Plaintiff, in addition to focusing on Judge Graae's sanctioning of Mr. Goldschmidt in Fischer v. Flax, also focuses on the fact that Mr. Goldschmidt — in attempting to defend himself in that action — claimed that he suffered from "a state of mental intoxication and loss of impulse control and judgment," Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions, Ex. 7 (Statement from Mr. Goldschmidt's medical doctor), due to "clinical depression and drug induced intoxication," Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 7. Plaintiff emphasizes that "[i]t is of interest that Goldschmidt claims that he suffered from clinical depression and drug induced intoxication through the Fischer litigation — which was also the period of time that the instant litigation was pending before this Court." Id. at 8. Plaintiff further stresses that Mr. Goldschmidt, along with Mr. Fischer, was sanctioned once again for another $30,000.00 after being found in contempt by the Circuit Court for Montgomery County, Maryland, for stonewalling collection-related discovery during post-judgment collection efforts instigated by Paley Rothman. Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 11-12; Pl.'s Reply at 3.

  Following collection efforts, Mr. Fischer filed for personal bankruptcy pursuant to Chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Code. See In re Fischer, United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maryland, Case No. 03-13704-DK. Plaintiff contends that in his bankruptcy case, Mr. "Fischer has engaged in the same pattern of behavior that he displayed in the Fischer v. Flax litigation" by refusing "to appear for depositions when ordered" and presenting "evidence in the Bankruptcy Court which he likely fabricated after the fact." Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 9. For instance, in an Order dated March 12, 2004, Bankruptcy Judge Keir granted sanctions to Plaintiff, a creditor in Mr. Fischer's bankruptcy case, for Mr. Fischer's refusal to comply with a Court order directing a FRBP 2004 examination; Judge Keir's Order also provided for sanctions against Mr. Fischer's bankruptcy attorney, Mr. Richard Rosenblatt. See Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions, Ex. 12 (3/10/04 Tr. of Bankruptcy Court Hearing).

  Plaintiff contends that the conduct of Messrs. Fischer and Goldschmidt in litigation contemporaneous to this case must be considered relevant by this Court in the resolution of Plaintiff's present Motion for Sanctions. Essentially, Plaintiff argues that Mr. Fischer and his lawyers, including former counsel Mr. Goldschmidt, have exhibited a pattern of misconduct that "constitutes chronic abuse of the legal standard." Pl.'s Reply at 10. Plaintiff describes the behavior by Defendants and their counsel as "extraordinary by any standard" wherein "fabricating documents, lying under oath, and using the legal system to further personal vendettas is Fischer['s] modus operandi." Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 12. Plaintiff posits that it would "blink? reality for this Court to ignore the extreme misconduct," Pl.'s Reply at 8, as it is quite likely that Mr. Fischer and Mr. Goldschmidt exhibited a similar pattern of behavior in this case.

  2. Withholding of Discovery in This Case

  Second, Plaintiff cites to the alleged discovery abuses by Defendants and their former counsel, Mr. Goldschmidt, in suppressing material evidence in this case. Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 13; Pl.'s Reply at 11. Plaintiff focuses on three (3) alleged instances of suppression of key evidence: (1) the production of false gross revenues incurred during the sale of Redneck Beer, which significantly underestimate the total sales of Redneck Beer, Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 13 & n. 10; (2) the apparent withholding by Mr. Fischer and Mr. Goldschmidt of documents showing that the Atkins' Logo was used in t-shirts produced and sold under license and the actual samples of the t-shirts themselves, id. at 13-20; and (3) the intentional suppression of the "missing" documents in this case, subject to this Court's discovery-related production orders requiring Plaintiff to share certain documents with Defendants' new counsel, Pl.'s Reply at 11-13.

  Plaintiff alleges that income tax-related documents produced by Defendants in this case stated that from 1995 through 1996 (the period during which the Fischer Brewing Company sold Redneck Beer), total sales amounted to roughly $1.5 million. Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 13. However, Plaintiff points to two different Washington Post articles which apparently contradict this figure. Id. at 13, n. 10. In the first article, Plaintiff asserts that Mr. Fischer claims that over 375,000 cases of Redneck Beer were sold; at $9.05 per case, Plaintiff estimates that such sales would have produced revenues of $3.4 million. In the second article, it is reported that Fischer Brewing "sold almost 15 million bottles" of Redneck Beer; Plaintiff estimates that at $9.05 per case, gross revenues would have been approximately $5.7 million. Id. As such, Plaintiff implies that Mr. Fischer and his former counsel, Mr. Goldschmidt, must be hiding the true revenues related to Redneck Beer. Id.

  However, Plaintiff spends most of her argument on the allegation that Mr. Fischer and Mr. Goldschmidt withheld key evidence that Atkins' Logo was used in t-shirts produced and sold under license pursuant to a November 15, 1995 agreement between the Fischer Brewing Company and Cambridge Sportswear, Inc. Id. at 13-20. In this agreement, Cambridge Sportswear provided the Fischer Brewing Company a $100,000.00 initial royalty fee in order to possess the exclusive license to produce Redneck Beer-branded clothing and wearing apparel. Id. at 14. According to Plaintiff, during Plaintiff's examination of Mr. Fischer in the In re Fischer bankruptcy case, Mr. Fischer maintained that this contract was "to license the name Redneck beer. Specifically the name, nothing else." Id. at 14 (citing 1/19/04 Fischer Dep. at 41). Indeed, Plaintiff contends that "[a]t no time did Fischer or Goldschmidt ever produce T-shirts or other clothing made by Cambridge under license in discovery in this case." Id. However, in the Fischer v. Flax litigation, Mr. Fischer produced a copy of a business plan which had been Bates stamped LFB000369-LFB000579. Id. at 16. Unlike the business plan produced in Flax, the business plan produced by Defendants in this case "lacked the Cambridge T-shirt photographs confirming Cambridge's reproduction on the T-shirts of the Atkins logo. Also lacking were photos of a model with Redneck beer, a promotional photo which included and made use of the Atkins Logos." Id. at 17. Plaintiff contends the omissions from the business plan were deliberate, despite the protestations of Mr. Fischer and Mr. Goldschmidt, because such information would have precluded this Court's November 30, 2001 grant of summary judgment under an implied non-exclusive license theory. Id. at 17-18. Specifically, according to Plaintiff,
Fischer's licensing to Cambridge Sportswear of Redneck Beer trademarked goods, including the Atkins Logos for use on wearing apparel would not be within any implied nonexclusive license to use the Atkins Logos for commercial production and distribution of beer. And, under no circumstances could Fischer grant an exclusive license to Cambridge. An implied license (which is all that Fischer could have had), at best, is nonexclusive. Fischer could not grant an exclusive license that he himself did not have.
Id. at 18 (emphasis in original). As such, given the importance of this complete business plan and "the remarkable history of prevarication" laid out by Plaintiff, Plaintiff asserts that "Fischer and Goldschmidt cannot be heard to say that the failure to produce key documents (and apparel samples) that were clearly in their possession was a simple oversight." Id. at 20.

  Finally, Plaintiff argues that Mr. Fischer and Mr. Goldschmidt are continuing to hide documents related to this litigation. Pl.'s Reply at 11-13. Specifically, Plaintiff contends that it is the practice of Messrs. Fischer and Goldschmidt "to claim that they do not have documents and to not produce documents," id. at 11, and that practice has exhibited itself with respect to the very documents subject to this Court's production-related orders of August 17, 2004 and December 1, 2004. According to Plaintiff, in a hearing held before the Bankruptcy Court on October 20, 2004, Mr. Fischer stated to the court that Mr. Goldschmidt retains one hundred (100) to two hundred (200) boxes of his business files, and indicated through counsel that he has tried unsuccessfully to obtain the documents from Mr. Goldschmidt. Id. at 12 (citing Pl.'s Reply, Ex. B (Oct. 20, 2004 Bankruptcy Court Tr. at 70-71). Plaintiff speculates that these boxes contain even more material than was copied by Defendants' successor counsel in this case from Plaintiff's files pursuant to the Court's Orders, and suggests that Mr. Goldschmidt — who has been held in contempt in Montgomery County, Maryland, for failing to produce documents — has failed to produce these documents in order to cover up his own misconduct. Id. at 11-12 & n. 15. Plaintiff concludes by stating that "[w]e have absolutely no doubt that the allegedly missing Fischer documents can be found (or recreated from) the 200 boxes and that Messrs. Fischer and Goldschmidt have, yet again, played games with this Court and with everyone else in this case." Id. at 13.

  3. Fischer's Alleged Fabrication of a Fake Mock-Up Bottle

  Third, Plaintiff asserts that evidence has come to light that indicates Mr. Fischer fabricated a mock-up, or prototype, bottle of Redneck Beer featuring the original concept of a red bandana and denim pocket in an attempt to support his claims that he — and not Plaintiff — is entitled to the copyright of the relevant design. Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 20. During the earlier round of dispositive motions, Defendants had alleged that Mr. Fischer, prior to meeting Plaintiff, had constructed a mock-up Redneck Beer bottle, using a Budweiser beer bottle, in order to demonstrate his concept of how the ultimate design should look; Defendants also argued that Mr. Fischer had also created some preliminary sketches highlighting his design ideas. See Atkins v. Fischer, Civ. No. 98-800, at 11-12 (D.D.C. Nov. 30, 2001). The Court rejected Defendants' argument, given Mr. Fischer's vague and inconclusive testimony regarding whether he actually showed Plaintiff the alleged mock-up bottle and sketches, and given the unequivocal testimony by both Plaintiff and Mr. Thomas Gaadt (the artist hired by Plaintiff to sketch the Atkins designs) that they never saw the mock-up bottle. Id.

  Despite the fact that the Court rejected Defendants' mock-up bottle claim as a matter of law, Plaintiff continues to focus on the importance of the mock-up bottle — which has long been the subject of major discovery disputes. Essentially, Plaintiff maintains that the mock-up bottle was created after the fact by Mr. Fischer in order to evade Plaintiff's claims. To support this argument, Plaintiff contends: (1) contrary to Mr. Fischer's deposition testimony, see 4/3/00 Fischer Dep. at 388, the mock-up bottle — as confirmed by Anheuser Busch Company through an analysis of a picture of the mock-up bottle — was not a Budweiser beer bottle at all, as the mock-up bottle was of a clear color, see Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 23-24 (citing 7/28/00 Dep. of Mark Elliott, Senior Manager in the Packaging Technology Group for Anheuser Busch); (2) the refusal by Plaintiff's former counsel, Mr. Goldschmidt, to hand over the actual bottle for further testing leads to an inference that Defendants were aware that the bottle was created ex post facto, and sought to hide that fact, id. at 24-25; (3) virtually all testimony in this case indicates that no one was shown the mock-up bottle by Mr. Fischer, contrary to his assertions, id. at 22 (citing to the fact that only Mr. Harvey Berkman and Mr. Steve Solomon testfied that they ever saw the mock-up bottle, and arguing that their testimony was vague), Pl.'s Reply at 25-28; and (4) Plaintiff's review of standard bottle markings in the United States, assisted by an expert witness with experience in the glass industry (Mr. C. Phillip Ross), indicates that the numbers engrossed on the mock-up bottle — "96 and a symbol that looks like a B and then the number 9934 and then the number 2," Pl.'s Reply at 29 — has led her to "believe that the symbol `96' on the mock-up bottle refers to the year of manufacture of that bottle," id., ensuring that the mock-up was created long after Mr. Fischer held discussions with Plaintiff regarding design plans.

  Plaintiff contends that the "fabricated" mock-up bottle had a significant impact on this litigation. According to Plaintiff, "[t]he vast majority of discovery conducted by the Plaintiff from 1999 until 2001 was the result of the concocted Mock-up Bottle defense." Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 26. Moreover, Mr. "Fischer's lies and fabrication converted a straightforward copyright infringement case into a case where a major issue in discovery was whose copyright it is." Id. Plaintiff avers that this kind of behavior by Mr. Fischer is similar to his actions taken in the Fischer v. Flax litigation, and that default judgment is the required sanction for such malfeasance. Id.; Pl.'s Reply at 30.

  4. Defendants' Counterclaims Were Filed in Bad Faith and Without a Legal or Factual Basis

  Fourth, and finally, similar to the Fischer v. Flax litigation, wherein Judge Graae expressly found that Mr. Fischer's claims against Mr. Flax were without legal or factual basis or proper investigation, Plaintiff contends that Defendants' counterclaims in this case were filed without legal or factual basis. See Pl.'s Mot. for Sanctions at 26-27. Defendants filed four (4) counterclaims in this case: (1) breach of contract; (2) tortious interference with business relations; (3) infringement of trademark; and (4) infringement of the trademark. See generally Defs.' Ans. Defendants' counterclaims were filed over seven years ago and Plaintiff's previous counsel never filed a Motion for Rule 11 Sanctions at that time. After Defendants' filed their counterclaims, Plaintiff brought a Motion to Dismiss those claims; this Court granted Plaintiff's motion as to Counterclaim I (breach of contract), but denied the motion as to the remaining counterclaims. The remaining three (3) counterclaims were ultimately dismissed by Defendants' stipulation on September 26, 2000. Despite these facts, ...

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