The opinion of the court was delivered by: Ellen Segal Huvelle United States District Judge
Plaintiff People for the American Way Foundation has sued the National Security Agency ("NSA") under the Freedom of Information Act ("FOIA"), 5 U.S.C. § 552, seeking documents relating to the NSA's recently revealed Terrorist Surveillance Program ("TSP"). The issue before the Court is whether the NSA properly invoked various statutory exemptions under FOIA to withhold documents responsive to plaintiff's requests, and to refuse to confirm or deny the existence of other responsive documents. Plaintiff has withdrawn a number of its original requests, and defendant has moved for summary judgment with respect to all of plaintiff's remaining FOIA requests. Plaintiff has also moved for summary judgment with respect to three of its requests, and has opposed defendant's motion for summary judgment on the other two remaining requests. As explained herein, the Court grants defendant's motion for summary judgment and denies plaintiff's motion.
The NSA is a separate agency within the Department of Defense charged with collecting, processing and disseminating signals intelligence ("SIGINT") information for foreign intelligence purposes, along with other objectives relating to national security. (Def.'s Facts ¶¶ 1, 2.) In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, President Bush authorized the NSA to intercept the international communications to and from the United States of people linked to al Qaeda or related terrorist organizations. (Def. Mot. at 5.) This surveillance was conducted without obtaining a warrant from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. (Pl. Mot. at 2.) The existence of this previously secret program -- known as the TSP -- was first acknowledged by President Bush on December 17, 2005. (Def.'s Facts ¶ 17.) Senate testimony by General Michael Hayden, current director of the Central Intelligence Agency and former director of the NSA, and similar statements from other government officials, indicate that lawyers from the United States Department of Justice and the White House Counsel's office have been involved in analyzing the legality of the TSP. (Pl. Mot. at 21; Def. Reply at 14.)
On December 29, 2005, plaintiff, a non-profit public interest organization whose stated mission is to educate the general public regarding current issues of civil and constitutional rights (Compl. ¶ 4), submitted a FOIA request to the NSA seeking records relating to the TSP. (Def.'s Facts ¶ 22.) Plaintiff then filed this action on February 6, 2006, to compel release of the requested records. (Compl. ¶ 1.) Plaintiff's original FOIA request sought sixteen categories of documents, but plaintiff has since withdrawn eleven of these specific requests.*fn1 (Pl. Mot. at 1.)
Five of the original document requests remain at issue here. Specifically, plaintiff seeks:
No. 2: Any and all documents that refer, reflect or relate to the total number of individuals that have been the subject of electronic surveillance by the NSA in the United States without a court approved warrant pursuant to [President Bush's Executive] Order since the date of the Order up to the date of this request.
No. 3: Any and all documents that refer, reflect or relate to the total number of individuals who have been the subject of warrantless electronic surveillance by the NSA in the United States since the mid-2004 Department of Justice audit of the NSA's warrantless domestic electronic surveillance program up to the date of this request.
No. 4: Any and all documents that refer, reflect or relate to the total number of wiretaps or other instances of electronic surveillance conducted by the NSA pursuant to authority granted the NSA by the Order regardless of whether such number includes successive wiretaps conducted on the same individual.
No. 6: Any and all documents relating to any audit or review of the NSA's program to conduct domestic warrantless electronic surveillance on individuals within the United States . . . pursuant to the Order since its execution, whether such audit or review was conducted internally by the NSA or externally, and whether such review or audit was conducted for the benefit of congressional or executive branch use.
No. 16: Any and all NSA records relating to People For the American Way Foundation or People for the American Way. (Pl. Ex. 1 [Dec. 29, 2005 FOIA Request] at 1-3.) As an alternative to its requests 2-4, plaintiff states that it would "accept a full list of the domestic wiretaps or other electronic surveillance conducted by the NSA and the number of persons subject to that surveillance within the requested time frame under the authority granted by the Order, with the names of the targeted individuals and organizations redacted." (Id. at 3.)
Citing FOIA Exemptions 1, 3 and 5, defendant has withheld documents responsive to requests 2-4 and 6, and has refused to confirm or deny the existence of documents responsive to request 16. (Def.'s Facts ¶ 24; Def Mot. at 10, 17, 34.) Defendant has filed the declarations of two NSA officials explaining the agency's reasons for the withholdings. (See Declaration of Louis F. Giles; Declaration of Joseph B.; Supplemental Declaration of Louis F. Giles.) According to these declarations, documents responsive to requests 2-4 and 6 relate to the sensitive activities and functions of the NSA, and their disclosure could reasonably be expected to cause grave damage to national security. (Joseph B. Decl. ¶¶ 9, 10, 14, 18, 19.) This information, defendant argues, is exempt from disclosure because it is protected by several federal statutes, and also because it has been properly classified "TOP SECRET-SCI"*fn2 pursuant to executive order. (See id. ¶¶ 14, 15, 19.) The declarations also explain that the NSA cannot, in the interest of national security, confirm or deny the existence of records responsive to request 16, because confirmation or denial of the NSA's surveillance of any particular target "would allow our adversaries to accumulate information and draw conclusions about NSA's technical capabilities and methods." (Id. ¶27.) Thus, defendant claims, the fact of the existence or nonexistence of documents responsive to request 16 is also properly classified and protected from disclosure by federal statute, and therefore is exempt from disclosure under FOIA. (Id. ¶¶ 28-29.) Based on these declarations, defendant has moved for summary judgment on all of plaintiff's outstanding requests.
Plaintiff has likewise moved for summary judgment on its requests 2-4, and opposes defendant's motion for summary judgment with respect to requests 6 and 16. (Pl. Mot. at 1.) In support of its motion, plaintiff argues that defendant's declarations are insufficient to support defendant's withholdings under FOIA. (See id. at 5.) Specifically, with respect to requests 2-4, plaintiff contends that the disclosure of "bare statistics" regarding the total number of individuals and communications subject to NSA surveillance could not reasonably be expected to result in damage to the national security, and that it would not reveal anything about the NSA's sources, methods, or procedures, nor expose any function of the NSA that is not already known to the public. (Id. at 6, 11, 14-17.) Similarly, plaintiff argues that confirming or denying the existence of records responsive to request 16 -- information relating solely to any surveillance of plaintiff's own communications under the TSP-- would not cause harm cognizable under any FOIA exemption, as it relates to only one of "hundreds of millions" of potential surveillance targets and would not reveal anything about the millions of other potential targets. (Id. at 27, 30.) Regarding request 6, plaintiff argues that the request encompasses any "legal opinions" concerning the TSP, and that defendant failed to justify the exemption of such documents in their entirety in reasonably specific detail. ...