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Federal Trade Commission v. Cephalon

April 28, 2008


The opinion of the court was delivered by: John D. Bates United States District Judge


Defendant Cephalon, Inc., is the manufacturer of the prescription wakefulness drug known as Provigil. Cephalon also owns a patent relating to the "particle size composition" of Provigil's active ingredient, modafinil. In late December 2002, Cephalon instituted a single patent infringement case against four pharmaceutical companies that had applied to sell generic modafinil products that would compete directly with Provigil. After more than two years of litigation, Cephalon eventually reached independent settlements with each of those companies whereby they agreed to forego entry into the market until 2012 in return for lucrative side agreements with Cephalon. Those settlements are the subject of several consolidated antitrust class actions currently pending against Cephalon in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. On February 13, 2008, the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC" or "Commission") filed this action against Cephalon, claiming that it had unlawfully monopolized the market for wakefulness drugs by impeding the entry of generic competitors to Provigil through the settlement arrangements. Cephalon has now moved to transfer this case to the Eastern District of Pennsylvania pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1404(a). FTC opposes the motion, which is fully briefed and ripe for resolution.

Upon careful consideration, the Court will grant Cephalon's motion.


Cephalon is a Delaware corporation that has its principal place of business in Frazer, Pennsylvania. See Def.'s Mot. Attach. Aff. of Randall J. Zakreski, Esq. (hereinafter "Zakreski Aff.") ¶¶ 3-5. In addition to its corporate headquarters located in Frazer, Cephalon has three other offices located within the geographic region that comprises the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Id. ¶ 4. The majority of the company's 2,000 employees within the United States work and/or reside within that region. Id. ¶ 3. Cephalon also maintains a small government affairs office in Washington, D.C. consisting of four employees. Id. ¶ 4.

U.S. Patent No. RE37,516, owned by Cephalon, is "a particular size pharmaceutical composition patent for modafinil (the active ingredient in Provigil)." Id. ¶7. That patent covers Provigil and expires on October 6, 2014, although a "pediatric exclusivity" period extends the patent's effective life through April 6, 2015. Id. Provigil received FDA approval in December 1998, id. ¶ 6, and Cephalon immediately began marketing the drug, the sales of which grew to account for more than 46% of Cephalon's total sales in 2007, see Compl. ¶ 1. Provigil is a prescription wakefulness drug that combats narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Id. ¶ 26. According to FTC, it has the most favorable "benefit and side-effect profile" among drugs of its kind and is thus considered the "'gold standard' for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with sleep disorders." Id. ¶ 27.

According to the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq., as amended by the Hatch-Waxman Act, drug manufacturers may seek to market a generic version of a brand-name drug prior to the expiration of the latter's governing patent if the entrants can show "that either: (1) the generic version does not infringe the patents on the brand-name drug, or (2) the patents are invalid." Compl. ¶ 16. Such a showing is made to the FDA by means of a so-called "paragraph IV certification." Id. The Hatch-Waxman Act provides that the first generic company to file a paragraph IV certification obtains "a period of protection from competition with other generic versions of the drug." Id. ¶ 18. That period is referred to as the "180-day exclusivity" window, which begins to run when the generic manufacturer first markets the generic product or an appeals court finds "the patent(s) claiming the branded drug invalid or not infringed." Id.*fn1

On December 24, 2002, four generic pharmaceutical companies -- Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc., Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Barr Laboratories, Inc., and Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited -- filed applications with the FDA to sell generic modafinil, a product that would in effect amount to a generic competitor to Provigil. See Zakreski Aff. ¶ 8. Pursuant to FDA's interpretation of the governing law, all four were deemed to be "first filers" entitled to the 180-day exclusivity window. As such, if FDA approved all four certifications, each of those companies could have launched generic competitors to Provigil and each of those generic products would have enjoyed 180-day exclusivity vis-a-vis any other putative generic entrants. In response to this generic threat to Provigil, Cephalon filed a single patent infringement suit against those companies on March 28, 2003. By February 1, 2006, nearly three years after it instituted the action, Cephalon had reached separate settlement agreements with each of the generic manufacturers. Id. ¶ 9. Those settlement agreements are at the center of the present controversy.

The agreements provide that each of the generic manufacturers may not introduce generic versions of modafinil until April 2012. Id. Cephalon insists that those settlement agreements were negotiated exclusively via phone conversations (and e-mail communications) that took place at the company's corporate headquarters in Frazer, Pennsylvania. Id. ¶ 10. Meanwhile, "[c]ontemporaneous with the Settlements, Cephalon also entered into certain other business transactions with the Generics and other entities." Id. ¶ 11. As Cephalon would have it, those side agreements are simply typical business arrangements. The FTC and a litany of private plaintiffs in the Pennsylvania action see it differently. According to the FTC, during the course of the patent litigation it became evident to Cephalon that generic entry by one or more of the manufacturers was all but certain to occur at some point in 2006, thereby "decimat[ing] [Provigil's] sales." Compl. ¶ 1. Cephalon does not own a patent on modafinil itself; the RE37,516 patent covers only the particular size composition of modafinil used in Provigil. But the FTC maintains that "Cephalon's Particle Size Patent could be easily circumvented." Id. ¶ 36. Put another way, Cephalon was unlikely to prevail in its patent infringement suit against the four generic manufacturers -- and that lawsuit was the only impediment to the introduction of generic competition to Provigil.

Faced with that reality, the FTC argues, "Cephalon bought off all four of its potential competitors" in order to maintain its monopoly position in Provigil. Id. ¶ 3. Under this view, the side arrangements reached contemporaneously with the settlement agreements were not the product of ordinary business necessities; rather, they were effectively lucrative pay-outs to the generic manufacturers designed to "handsomely compensate[]" them in lieu of introducing generic competitors to Provigil. Id. Hence, in the words of Cephalon's CEO: "We were able to get six more years of patent protection. That's $4 billion in sales that no one expected." Id. ¶ 4.

Moreover, the settlement agreements in effect preclude generic entry by other manufacturers as well. Because the four first filers enjoy a 180-day exclusivity period, FDA is "prevented by law from approving any other generic version of Provigil until the 180-day exclusivity period has been triggered and run." Id. ¶ 85. But under the settlement agreements that window will not start to run until April 2012, when the first filers may finally begin to market generic Provigil. Significantly, the other trigger for starting the 180-day exclusivity period -- an appeals court decision concerning whether Provigil's patents were either infringed upon or invalid -- will also not come to pass with respect to the first filers owing to the settlements. And the FTC maintains that "Cephalon has taken further steps to ensure that no court decision will trigger the 180-day exclusivity period, including settling or refusing to litigate with other generic companies that could trigger the exclusivity period." Id. ¶ 88.

The FTC began investigating this transaction in April 2006. See FTC Opp'n Attach. Decl. of Saralisa C. Brau, Esq. ¶ 2. Meanwhile, a direct purchaser of Provigil filed an antitrust suit against Cephalon and the four generic manufacturers in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania on April 27, 2006, alleging that the agreements violated Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act. See FTC Opp'n Attach. Decl. of Barry S. Taus, Esq. ¶ 2. Several additional plaintiffs filed putative class actions in that same district, and the cases were eventually consolidated into two separate prospective classes: the Direct Purchaser Class and the End-Payor Class. Id. ¶ 3. Cephalon filed a motion to dismiss those actions, which became ripe for decision on January 11, 2007. Id. ¶ 8. Resolution of that motion is currently pending.

The FTC filed this action on February 13, 2008. Although the complaint alleges violations of Section 13(b) of the Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. ยง 53(b), the action is premised upon the same operative facts and events that form the basis for the private Sherman Act cases pending in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. In light of that fact, Cephalon moved this Court to transfer the case to that district. FTC opposes transfer on three broad grounds: (1) that Cephalon has failed to make an adequate case for transfer; (2) that the United States is entitled to deference in choosing its forum for antitrust actions; and ...

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