Appeal from the Superior Court of the District of Columbia (CF2-20318-06) (Hon. Jeanette Jackson Clark, Trial Judge).
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Thompson, Associate Judge
Before GLICKMAN, and THOMPSON, Associate Judges and TERRY, Senior Judge.
On January 18, 2007, after a bench trial, appellant Travis Banks was found guilty of conduct proscribed by 40 U.S.C. § 6134 (2002) ("It is unlawful to discharge a firearm, firework or explosive, set fire to a combustible, make a harangue or oration, or utter loud, threatening, or abusive language in the Supreme Court Building or grounds"). He seeks reversal of his conviction on the ground that shooting a flare gun, the conduct for which he was arrested and charged, does not fall within any of the categories of activities that the statute makes unlawful.*fn1 He also argues -- for the first time on appeal -- that section 6134 is unconstitutionally vague. We affirm.
The government presented the following evidence at trial. On September 14, 2006, Supreme Court Police Officer Gregory Conner saw appellant on the front plaza of the Supreme Court with a cart containing a box and other items. Officer Conner testified that appellant made "a loud utterance"and then removed his outer garment, revealing a shirt with "propaganda towards whatever his cause was on it." When Officer Connor approached appellant to tell him he was not allowed to demonstrate on the grounds of the Supreme Court, appellant lifted an object over his head and fired "some sort of projectile" that left a visible trail of smoke and made a noise "such as a flare gun or a firework would make." Another Supreme Court officer testified that he heard a loud bang that "sounded like some type of gun or loud firework." Appellant threw down the object and Officer Connor recovered it and determined that it was a flare gun. The flare gun was similar in shape to a pistol, and inside it were two rounds and a spent casing.
Captain Timothy Dolan of the Supreme Court Police, who is a firearms instructor, testified that when the trigger of a flare gun is pulled, a firing pin strikes the shell casing inside the gun.
Inside the shell casing is a projectile, similar to a bullet, as well as gunpowder. The firing pin's strike causes a spark that ignites the gunpowder and forces the projectile, which contains a combustible material, out of the barrel of the gun. The projectile causes a flame when it is ejected.
Appellant presented no witnesses, but his counsel argued that a flare gun is neither a "firearm" nor a "firework" nor an "explosive." Applying the Webster's dictionary definition of "firework," the trial court denied appellant's motion for judgment of acquittal, finding that, "at a minimum, [the flare gun] was a firework." The court thereafter found appellant guilty of discharging "a firearm or firework" at the Supreme Court building and grounds, in violation of section 6134.
Whether a flare guns fits into any of the categories of items listed in section 6134 is a question of statutory interpretation, which we consider de novo. See Veney v. United States, 936 A.2d 811, 822 (D.C. 2007). We agree with the trial court that shooting a flare gun on the grounds of the Supreme Court is covered by the statutory prohibition.
As the trial court noted, Webster's (Third New International) Dictionary defines the term "firework" as "a device for producing a striking display . . . by the combustion of explosive or flammable compositions esp. for exhibiting, signaling, or illumination." In the absence of an applicable statutory definition of "firework," the trial court did not err in relying on this dictionary definition. See 1618 Twenty-First St. Tenants' Ass'n v. Phillips Collection, 829 A.2d 201, 203 (D.C. 2003) (noting "the use of dictionary definitions is appropriate in interpreting undefined statutory terms."). In light of Captain Dolan's testimony about the "combustion caused when [a flare gun's] firing pin ignites a . . . combustible powder in the base of the shell casing" and appellant's acknowledgment that a flare gun is a signaling device, we have no trouble concluding that a flare gun is covered by the foregoing dictionary definition and thus by the statutory term "firework."*fn2
We turn next to appellant's claim that section 6134 is unconstitutionally vague and that he "had no way to know that his act was illegal." Constitutional claims not made in the trial court ordinarily are unreviewable on appeal, see In re J.W., 837 A.2d 40, 47 (D.C. 2003), but we will review them, under the exacting plain-error standard, "in exceptional situations and when necessary to prevent a clear miscarriage ...