The opinion of the court was delivered by: Thomas F. Hogan United States District Judge
Before the Court are 105 habeas petitions from aliens who were detained at the United States Naval Base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba ("Guantanamo") and have since been transferred or released to a foreign country. Their petitions raise one of the many questions left unanswered by the United States Supreme Court in Boumediene v. Bush, 128 S.Ct. 2229 (2008) - what happens to a Guantanamo detainee's habeas claim once he is transferred or released. Although Boumediene held that aliens detained at Guantanamo have the privilege of habeas corpus, id. at 2262, the Supreme Court did not expound on the privileges of those detainees once they leave Guantanamo. Such issues were left to "the expertise and competence of the District Court to address in the first instance." Id. at 2276. Subsequently, this Court, pursuant to its authority as the coordinator and manager of habeas cases involving Guantanamo detainees, ordered former Guantanamo detainees with pending habeas petitions ("Petitioners") and the United States Government ("Respondents") to each file a consolidated brief addressing whether the United States District Court for the District of Columbia's "jurisdiction over a habeas corpus petition filed by a foreign national detained at Guantanamo Bay, as recognized in Boumediene v. Bush, 128 S.Ct. 2229 (2008), is eliminated by the petitioner's transfer or release from Guantanamo Bay." Order (Jan. 12, 2009) [Dkt. No. 79].
Upon consideration of the multiple briefs filed by the parties, the 105 habeas petitions, as well as the entire record herein, the Court finds that the District Court no longer has jurisdiction over Petitioners' habeas petitions. Petitioners are no longer in United States custody and fail to demonstrate that they suffer from collateral consequences of their prior detention that the Court can remedy. Accordingly, the Court will dismiss their habeas claims as moot.
Petitioners are 105 aliens who share a basic set of facts. See Joint Status Report (Nov. 9, 2009) [Dkt. No. 109]; Sealed Joint Status Report (Nov. 9, 2009) [Dkt. No. 110]; Errata to Joint Status Report (Dec. 11, 2009) [Dkt. No. 116].*fn1 The United States Government detained them at Guantanamo and later transferred or released them to various foreign countries. See Pet'rs' Br. at 19-20 (Feb. 6, 2009) [Dkt. No. 89]. While detained at Guantanamo, each alien petitioned the United States District Court for the District of Columbia for a writ of habeas corpus.
On July 12, 2008, the Supreme Court held that the Suspension Clause "of the Constitution has full effect at Guantanamo Bay." Boumediene, 128 S.Ct. at 2262. Thus, the aliens detained at Guantanamo "are entitled to the privilege of habeas corpus to challenge the legality of their detention." Id. The decision marked the first time the Supreme Court has "held that noncitizens detained by our Government in territory over which another country maintains de jure sovereignty have any rights under our Constitution." Id. Later in the opinion, the Supreme Court concluded that the process Guantanamo detainees receive under the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-148, 119 Stat. 2739, is not an adequate substitute for habeas review. Id. at 2262-74. Accordingly, the language in § 7 of the Military Commissions Act of 2006 ("MCA"), Pub. L. No. 109-336, 120 Stat. 2600, eliminating habeas review for Guantanamo detainees "operates as an unconstitutional suspension of the writ." Id. at 2240. In the MCA's absence, the Supreme Court indicated that Guantanamo detainees are entitled to petition for habeas corpus under the federal habeas corpus statute, 28 U.S.C. § 2241. Id. at 2266; see also Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466, 481 (2004) (holding that aliens being held at Guantanamo "are entitled to invoke the federal courts' authority under § 2241"). In order to reduce administrative burdens, the Supreme Court allowed the Government to consolidate review of the Guantanamo detainees' habeas petitions in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Boumediene, 128 S.Ct. at 2276.
On July 1, 2008, the District Court resolved by Executive Session to designate the undersigned "to coordinate and manage proceedings in all cases involving petitioners previously detained at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, so that these cases can be addressed as expeditiously as possible per the Supreme Court's decision in Boumediene." Order at 2 (July 3, 2008) [Dkt. No. 1]. Though former detainees were not explicitly mentioned in Boumediene, the habeas privilege described in the decision applies to their claims. The federal habeas statute requires that a habeas petitioner be "in custody under or by color of the authority of the United States." 28 U.S.C. § 2241(c)(1) (2008). This requirement is satisfied if the petitioner was in United States custody "at the time the petition was filed." Spencer v. Kemna, 523 U.S. 1, 7 (1998). At the time they filed their habeas claims, Petitioners were in the physical custody of the United States at Guantanamo, where the Suspension Clause "has full effect," Boumediene, 128 S.Ct. at 2262. Petitioners therefore initially met this minimum statutory threshold.
Nevertheless, Petitioners' new circumstances raise the issue of mootness. When Petitioners filed their habeas claims, the relief requested was clear - release from United States custody at Guantanamo. Now, Petitioners no longer seek release from Guantanamo since they have been transferred or released abroad. See Pet'rs' Supp. Reply at 5-7 (Nov. 20, 2009) [Dkt. No. 114]. Instead, Petitioners ask the Court to secure their release from foreign sovereigns, void agreements between the United States Government and foreign sovereigns that impose restrictions on them, or invalidate the United States Government's prior determination that they are enemy combatants. Id. But the federal courts are not necessarily able to provide such relief. As the Supreme Court explained in Munaf v. Geren, decided the same day as Boumediene, "[h]abeas is at its core a remedy for unlawful executive detention. The typical remedy for such detention is, of course, release." 128 S.Ct. 2207, 2221 (2008) (internal citations omitted).
In its role as manager and coordinator of these petitions, this Court is tasked with resolving whether the petitions are now moot. On January 12, 2009, the Court ordered Petitioners and Respondents to each file a consolidated brief addressing whether the District Court maintains habeas jurisdiction over the petitions of Guantanamo detainees who have been released or transferred to a foreign country. "[A] mootness issue quite clearly can be raised sua sponte if not addressed by the parties." Sannon v. United States, 631 F.2d 1247, 1250 (5th Cir. 1980). The federal habeas statute is also unambiguous that a federal court may dismiss a habeas claim sua sponte if "it appears from the [habeas] application that the applicant or person detained is not entitled" to the writ. 28 U.S.C. § 2243. On February 6, 2009, the parties filed consolidated briefs. On February 23, 2009, each party filed a consolidated reply brief. During the course of the Court's deliberation, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued multiple opinions interpreting Boumediene and clarifying the substantive and procedural habeas rights of Guantanamo detainees. Subsequently, the Court requested and received supplemental briefing from the parties.*fn2
The question before the Court is not whether the District Court initially had jurisdiction over Petitioners' habeas claims, which was decided by Boumediene, but whether it still has jurisdiction over the claims. Mootness is a concern for any petitioner with a pending habeas claim who is released from United States custody. At all times during federal judicial proceedings, a party must present "a case or controversy under Article III, § 2, of the Constitution." Spencer, 523 U.S. at 7.*fn3 Otherwise, the party's claim is moot. For a petitioner in United States custody, the controversy is clear since he is attempting to secure his release from the United States Government. Id. For a petitioner released from United States custody, the case-or-controversy requirement is problematic because the remedy sought is more elusive. Under habeas common law, a petitioner no longer in custody can prove he continues to present a live case or controversy by demonstrating he suffers "some concrete and continuing injury other than the now-ended incarceration... some 'collateral consequence' of the conviction" that is "likely to be redressed by a favorable judicial decision." Id. (citations and quotations omitted).
Petitioners address this mootness inquiry in two ways. First, they cite to the federal habeas statute, 28 U.S.C. § 2241. Under § 2241(c), the writ of habeas corpus extends to petitioners who are in United States custody. Some Petitioners aver that although they are no longer physically detained by the United States at Guantanamo, they are being detained by foreign governments at the behest of the United States. This constructive custody, they argue, satisfies that statute's custody requirement, thereby obviating the need for a mootness inquiry. Second, regardless of whether they remain in custody, Petitioners claim they all suffer from collateral consequences of their prior detention at Guantanamo that are concrete and redressable by a federal court. Thus, despite their release, Petitioners argue that they continue to present a live case or controversy under Article III, § 2.
Petitioners claim that some former detainees remain in custody of the United States under the federal habeas statute, even though they are no longer in the physical custody of the United States at Guantanamo. Petitioners posit that if they remain in United States custody, there is no need for a mootness inquiry. See Pet'rs' Reply at 10 (Feb. 23, 2009) [Dkt. No. 94]. Custody and jurisdiction are intertwined under the habeas statute. Section 2241 provides that the writ of habeas corpus does not extend to a detainee unless he is "in custody" either "under or by color of the authority of the United States," "in violation of the Constitution or law or treaties of the United States," or in several other respects that the parties do not claim are relevant here. 28 U.S.C. § 2241(c). Consistent with this broad language, "courts have universally held that actual physical custody of an individual by the respondent is unnecessary for habeas jurisdiction to exist." Abu Ali v. Ashcroft, 350 F. Supp. 2d 28, 47 (D.D.C. 2004)). Rather, the statute provides "for habeas jurisdiction where the official possesses either actual or 'constructive' custody of the petitioner." Id. (citing LoBue v. Christopher, 82 F.3d 1081, 1082 (D.C. Cir. 1996)). To be found in the constructive custody of the United States within the meaning of the habeas statute, the burden is on the petitioner to establish that "the respondent was responsible for significant restraints on the petitioner's liberty." Abu Ali, 350 F. Supp. 2d at 48.
A subset of Petitioners allege they are in constructive custody of the United States. Though these Petitioners were "transferred from Guantanamo to the custody of other nations," they "claim that their continued physical detention by those nations is directed by or otherwise at the behest of the United States." Pet'rs' Br. at 5. Petitioners are short on examples, except for the fact that former Guantanamo detainees from Afghanistan transferred back to Afghanistan have been detained at a detention facility built by the United States. Id. Petitioners lean on Abu Ali for the notion that the District Court continues to have habeas jurisdiction over individuals detained by foreign powers at the behest of the United States. See id. at 6-7. In Abu Ali, a United States citizen alleged he was being detained in a Saudi Arabian prison "at the behest and ongoing supervision of the United States." Abu Ali, 350 F. Supp. 2d at 30. The District Court concluded that the petitioner was entitled to "expeditious jurisdictional discovery... to further explore those contentions." Id.
Respondents disclaim responsibility for the Petitioners' continued detention. In support, Respondents submit the declaration of Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Sandra L. Hodgkinson, which explains that "[i]n all cases of transfer, the detainee is transferred entirely to the custody and control of the other government, and once transferred, is no longer in the custody and control of the United States." Hodgkinson Decl. ¶ 5, July 9, 2008. If subsequent to the transfer the individual is detained, the detention is "by the foreign government pursuant to its own laws and not on behalf of the United States." Id.; see also Decl. of Clint Williamson, United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues, ¶ 6, June 8, 2007 (before transferring a detainee the United States engages in discussions with the foreign government concerned "to learn what measures the receiving government is likely to take to ensure that the detainee will not pose a continuing threat to the United States or its allies"). With respect to the Afghani detainees transferred to an Afghani detention center, according to the declaration of Lieutenant Colonel David F. Koonce, Director of the Detainee Capabilities Directorate for the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan, the United States ...