The opinion of the court was delivered by: James E. Boasberg United States District Judge
Plaintiff James Ford was deemed disabled for purposes of the Social Security Act and approved for assistance in January 2006. His benefits were significantly cut by the Social Security Administration soon thereafter, and he promptly disputed these reductions. Due to an administrative error on the part of the Agency, it did not act on Plaintiff's appeal until he filed a pro se suit in the Superior Court of the District of Columbia in May 2009, which was subsequently removed to this Court. The Agency then reviewed its decision to limit Plaintiff's benefits and concluded that the reduced payments had been correctly calculated. It informed Plaintiff that he could again appeal this adverse decision if he wished to, but he has not done so. Defendants have now filed a Motion to Dismiss on the principal grounds that Plaintiff failed to exhaust his administrative remedies and that constitutional-tort claims under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 are not available against federal actors. Concurring, the Court will grant the Motion.
According to Plaintiff's Complaint, which must be presumed true for purposes of this Motion, an Administrative Law Judge approved social security benefits on his behalf in the amount of $1,043 per month in January 2006. Compl., ¶¶ 3-4. Several months later, Plaintiff claims that he received a letter from the SSA informing him that his benefits would be cut to a total monthly amount of $600. Id., ¶ 5. He states that he appealed this decision in a timely manner, but continued to receive reduced benefits without ever learning of the result of his appeal. Id., ¶¶ 4-8. Plaintiff avers that he continued to inquire about his case, including by speaking to several supervisors at the SSA in June 2009 and writing a letter to Defendant Michael Astrue, the SSA Commissioner, in May 2009, all without results. Id., ¶ 10.
Having received no answer to his appeal from the Agency, Plaintiff ultimately filed suit in the Superior Court in May 2009. See Notice of Removal, Exh. A (Original Sup. Ct. File) at 5-9. The SSA then held a formal meeting on August 26, 2009, to reconsider Plaintiff's benefits in light of his suit and found that its 2006 decision to reduce his benefits was correct. Mot., Exh. 5 (Aug. 26, 2009, Notice of Reconsideration) at 1. The notice informing him of that decision explained that he could appeal the reconsideration determination within sixty days. Id. It is not disputed that Plaintiff has not yet appealed.
On July 17, 2009, Plaintiff filed an amended complaint in this Court, though he did not name it such. (It is this document to which the Court refers throughout this Memorandum Opinion.) Defendants have now moved to dismiss the case.*fn1
Rule 12(b)(6) provides for the dismissal of an action where a complaint fails "to state a claim upon which relief can be granted." When the sufficiency of a complaint is challenged under Rule 12(b)(6), the factual allegations presented in it must be presumed true and should be liberally construed in plaintiff's favor. Leatherman v. Tarrant Cty. Narcotics & Coordination Unit, 507 U.S. 163, 164 (1993). The notice pleading rules are "not meant to impose a great burden on a plaintiff," Dura Pharm., Inc. v. Broudo, 544 U.S. 336, 347 (2005), and he or she must thus be given every favorable inference that may be drawn from the allegations of fact. Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 584 (2007). Although "detailed factual allegations" are not necessary to withstand a Rule 12(b)(6) motion, Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555, "a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937, 1949 (2009) (internal quotation omitted). Plaintiff must put forth "factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged." Id. Though a plaintiff may survive a 12(b)(6) motion even if "recovery is very remote and unlikely," Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555 (citing Scheuer v. Rhodes, 416 U.S. 232, 236 (1974)), the facts alleged in the complaint "must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level." Id. at 555.
A motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6) must rely solely on matters within the complaint, see FED. R. CIV. P. 12(d), which includes statements adopted by reference as well as copies of written instruments joined as exhibits. FED. R. CIV. P. 10(c).
A. Social Security Review Process
Defendants seek the dismissal of Plaintiff's Complaint for failure to state a claim. They argue first that Plaintiff can obtain no relief from this Court because he has not exhausted his administrative remedies, a necessary prerequisite to seeking judicial review of SSA decisions.
Any individual who, like Plaintiff, is dissatisfied with "any final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security made after a hearing to which he was a party . . . may obtain a review of such decision by a civil action commenced within sixty days after the mailing to him of notice of such decision . . . ." 42 U.S.C. § 405(g) (emphasis added). Congress has made clear that this is the only manner in which a decision by the Commissioner of Social Security may be challenged. § 405(h). What constitutes a "final decision" is defined through agency regulations rather than statutory text. See § 405(a); Weinberger v. Salfi, 422 U.S. 749, 766 (1975).
The SSA's regulations set out how a final decision may be obtained from the Commissioner. 20 C.F.R. § 404.900. First, an initial determination is made as to the person's eligibility or continued eligibility for benefits. § 404.902. A notice of this initial determination is issued, in which the claimant is informed that he must request reconsideration within 60 days of receipt of the notice. §§ 404.904, 404.909. Such reconsideration may take the form of a case review or a disability hearing, depending on what is at issue in the particular case. § 404.913. If dissatisfied with the result of the reconsideration, the claimant may once again appeal within 60 days of the receipt of the decision, this time by requesting a hearing before an administrative judge. § 404.933. Within 60 days of an unfavorable decision by an administrative judge, the claimant may apply for review by the Appeals Council. § 404.968. Review by the Council is discretionary, but the claimant must nonetheless petition for review in order to receive a final decision. See Sims v. Apfel, 530 U.S. 103, 107 (2000) ("If a claimant fails to request review from the Council, there is no final decision and, as a ...