The opinion of the court was delivered by: Rosemary M. Collyer United States District Judge
The Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (the "Tribe" or "Menominee") returns to this Court upon remand from the D.C. Circuit, continuing to seek monies from the Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health Service ("IHS") for contract support costs the Tribe incurred in providing health care services to its members in 1995-2000. In reversing this Court, the Circuit found that the six-year limitation period for presenting administrative claims, as allowed by the Contract Disputes Act, 41 U.S.C. § 401, et seq, can be equitably tolled. Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin v. United States, 614 F.3d 519, 529 (D.C. Cir. 2010) ("Menominee II") ("We agree that the statute is subject to tolling and remand for the district court to consider whether tolling is appropriate in this case."). The Tribe argues that it is entitled to equitable tolling because: 1) it reasonably relied on a potential class action brought by other tribes complaining of the same insufficient payments; 2) it reasonably believed it was a member of the putative class and thereby was pursuing its claims for contract support costs; and 3) it reasonably believed that, as a member of the proposed class, it was entitled to suspension of the limitations period during the class certification period.
The United States moves to dismiss, or alternatively for summary judgment, arguing that no equitable tolling is appropriate and that, on the merits, Menominee received all the monies to which it was entitled or that it waived its rights to seek more. The United States also argues that the Tribe cannot recover on its 1999 and 2000 stable-funding claim because even if it were not barred by the statute of limitations, nearly all of the appropriated money was spent. The Tribe opposes each of these arguments and also moves for summary judgment. The Court will grant summary judgment to the United States with respect to the 1996-1998 shortfall claims and the 1999 and 2000 stable-funding claim. The Court will deny both parties' motions with respect to the 1995 shortfall claim.
The Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin is a federally recognized Indian tribe and is eligible to enter into contracts with the United States under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act ("ISDA"), 25 U.S.C. § 450. The ISDA authorizes tribes to execute "self-determination" contracts with the IHS in order to provide health care programs and other services to their members that the United States has historically provided. The United States pays tribes the amounts the federal government would otherwise spend for such health-related programs and services as well as various administrative costs incurred by the tribes (contract support costs or "CSC").
Each year from 1995 to 2000, Menominee provided health care services to eligible members pursuant to its self-determination contracts. From 1996 to 2000, the Tribe also signed "Rate Agreements" and "Annual Funding Agreements."*fn1 The Rate Agreements were negotiated with the Department of Interior and, according to the Tribe, were used to calculate accurate CSC for the programs and services the Tribe administered. The Annual Funding Agreements were negotiated with the IHS and, according to the United States, included all CSC owed to the Tribe.*fn2 For each year, IHS paid the Tribe the amount of CSC enumerated in the Annual Funding Agreements, but did not pay the amount of CSC the Tribe says is owed pursuant to the Rate Agreements. Menominee seeks damages for the unpaid CSC for 1995-2000.
A. Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
Congress enacted the ISDA in 1975 to allow American Indians and Alaska Natives to contract with the federal government to operate a variety of programs, functions, services, and activities previously provided by the federal government. See 25 U.S.C. § 450. For instance, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, through IHS, has provided health care programs to American Indians. Under the ISDA, an Indian tribe can contract with IHS and administer its own health care programs and the Secretary pays the tribe both the costs IHS would have expended for the programs (the "base" or "Secretarial" costs) and CSC.
CSC include both direct costs (such as workers' compensation insurance) and indirect costs (such as rent, utilities, and payroll for management and administration) that a tribe incurs in administering its programs. See Cherokee Nation of Okla. v. Leavitt, 543 U.S. 631, 634 (2005). Most CSC are indirect and they are "generally calculated by applying an 'indirect cost rate' to the amount of funds otherwise payable to the Tribe." Id. at 625 (quoting Br. for Federal Parties at 7).
In 1978, Congress enacted the Contract Disputes Act ("CDA") which "establishe[s] a comprehensive framework for resolving contract disputes between executive branch agencies and government contractors." Menominee II, 614 F.3d at 521. As originally enacted, there was no statutory time limit to bring a contract dispute claim under the CDA. In 1994, Congress amended the CDA to require that contract disputes be submitted to the contracting officer of the relevant agency "within six years after the accrual of the claim."*fn3 See 41 U.S.C. § 605(a). The submitted claim "need not be elaborate" and can be reflected in letters alone. Arctic Slope Native Association, Ltd. v. Sebelius, 583 F.3d 785, 797 (Fed. Cir. 2009).
Once a claim has been submitted, the contracting officer generally has
60 days to issue a decision. See 41 U.S.C. § 605(c).*fn4
If the decision is unfavorable or not timely issued, the
contractor can appeal the decision to the board of contract appeals
within the relevant agency or, within 12 months, file suit in the
United States Court of Federal Claims. Menominee II, 614
at 521. The present case was brought in the District Court for the
District of Columbia instead of the Court of Federal Claims because
the ISDA allows a tribe to bring a contract claim in a federal
district court. Id. at 522 (citing 25 U.S.C. § 450m-1(a)).
A motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6) challenges the adequacy of a complaint on its face. Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6). A complaint must be sufficient "to give a defendant fair notice of what the . . . claim is and the grounds upon which it rests." Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007) (internal citations omitted). In deciding a motion under Rule 12(b)(6), a court may consider the facts alleged in the complaint, documents attached to the complaint as exhibits or incorporated by reference, and matters about which the court may take judicial notice. Abhe & Svoboda, Inc. v. Chao, 508 F.3d 1052, 1059 (D.C. Cir. 2007). If, in considering a Rule 12(b)(6) motion, "matters outside the pleading are presented to and not excluded by the court, the motion shall be treated as one for summary judgment under Rule 56." Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(d); see Holy Land Found. for Relief and Dev. v. Ashcroft, 333 F.3d 156, 165 (D.C. Cir. 2003).Because the Court has considered matters outside of the pleadings, it will treat the United States' motion as one for summary judgment.
D. Motion for Summary Judgment
Under Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, summary judgment shall be granted "if the movant shows that there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(a); accord Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 247 (1986). Moreover, summary judgment is properly granted against a party who "after adequate time for discovery and upon motion . . . fails to make a showing sufficient to establish the existence of an element essential to that party's case, and on which that party will bear the burden of proof at trial." Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 322 (1986).
In ruling on a motion for summary judgment, the court must draw all justifiable inferences in the nonmoving party's favor and accept the nonmoving party's evidence as true. Anderson, 477 U.S. at 255. A nonmoving party, however, must establish more than "the mere existence of a scintilla of evidence" in support of its position. Id. at 252. In addition, the nonmoving party may not rely solely on allegations or conclusory statements. Greene v. Dalton, 164 F.3d 671, 675 (D.C. Cir. 1999). Rather, the nonmoving party must present specific facts that would enable a reasonable jury to find in its favor. Id. at 675. If the evidence "is merely colorable, or is not significantly probative, summary judgment may be granted." Anderson, 477 U.S. at 249-50 (citations omitted).
On March 14, 2008, this Court granted in part and denied in part the United States' motion to dismiss. Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin v. United States, 539 F.Supp.2d 152 (D.D.C. 2008) ("Menominee I"). The Court held that the statute of limitations for filing claims under the CDA barred the 1996-1998 CSC funding claims and that the statute is jurisdictional in nature and therefore not subject to tolling. Id. at 153-54. The Court also held that the 1995 CSC funding claim was barred by laches. Id. at 154-55. The Court denied the motion to ...