United States District Court, District of Columbia
AMIT P. MEHTA, District Judge.
Americans eat outside of their homes with incredible frequency. The U.S. Department of Commerce, for instance, recently reported, for the first time since it began tracking such data, that Americans spent more money per month at restaurants and bars than in grocery stores. Of course, Americans eat out at many other places, too-sports arenas, school and workplace cafeterias, hotels and resorts, hospitals, and nursing homes, just to name a few. The foodservice distribution industry supplies food and related products to all of these locations. Foodservice distribution is big business. In 2013, the market grew to $231 billion. By some estimates, there are over 16, 000 companies that compete in the foodservice distribution marketplace.
The two largest foodservice distribution companies in the country are Defendants Sysco Corporation ("Sysco") and U.S. Foods, Inc. ("USF"). Both are primarily "broadline" foodservice distributors. As the name implies, a broadline foodservice distributor sells and delivers a "broad" array of food and related products to just about anywhere food is consumed outside the home. In 2013, Sysco's broadline sales were over $]REDACTED/] billion and USF's were over $]REDACTED/] billion.
In December 2013, Sysco and USF announced that they had entered into an agreement to merge the companies. Fourteen months later, in February 2015, Sysco and USF announced that they intended to divest 11 USF distribution facilities to the third largest broadline foodservice distributor, Performance Food Group, Inc., if the merger received regulatory approval.
On February 20, 2015, the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") and a group of states filed suit in this court seeking an injunction to prevent the proposed merger. Specifically, under Section 13(b) of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the FTC asked this court to halt the proposed merger until the FTC completes an administrative hearing-scheduled to begin on July 21, 2015-to determine whether the proposed combination would violate Section 7 of the Clayton Act.
The precise question presented by this case is whether the court should enjoin Sysco and USF from merging until the proposed combination is reviewed by an FTC Administrative Law Judge. The real-world impact of the case, however, is more consequential. Sysco and USF have announced that they will not proceed with the merger if the court grants the requested injunction.
The proceedings in this case have been extraordinary. The FTC investigated the proposed merger for more than a year before filing suit. Then, within a two-month period, the parties worked tirelessly to exchange millions of documents, depose dozens of witnesses, and secure over a hundred declarations. The court heard live testimony for eight days in early May 2015. Counsel for the parties have done all of this work while exhibiting the highest degree of skill and professionalism.
Congress passed the Clayton Act to enable the federal government to halt mergers in their incipiency that likely would result in high market concentrations. Congress was especially concerned with large combinations that would impact everyday consumers across the country. The court has considered all of the evidence in this case and has reached the following conclusion: The proposed merger of the country's first and second largest broadline foodservice distributors is likely to cause the type of industry concentration that Congress sought to curb at the outset before it harmed competition. The court finds that the FTC has met its burden under Section 13(b) of the Federal Trade Commission Act of showing that the requested injunction is in the public interest. The court, therefore, grants the FTC's motion for preliminary injunctive relief.
I. THE FOODSERVICE DISTRIBUTION INDUSTRY
Defendants operate in a $231 billion foodservice distribution industry, where over 16, 000 companies battle daily to sell food and related products to restaurants, resorts, hotels, hospitals, schools, company cafeterias, and so on-everywhere food is served outside the home. Hr'g Tr. 1324; DX-00329 at 17. The types of customers served by the foodservice distribution industry come in all shapes and sizes. They range from independent restaurants, to well-known quick-service and casual dining chains ( e.g., Five Guys, Subway, and Applebee's), to hospitality procurement companies and hotel chains ( e.g., Avendra, Hilton Supply Management, and Starwood Hotels and Resorts), to government agencies ( e.g., the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), to foodservice management companies ( e.g., Aramark, Sodexo, and Compass Group), to healthcare group purchasing organizations ( e.g., Premier, Novation, and Navigator).
The industry recognizes four general categories of foodservice distribution companies: (i) broadline distributors, (ii) systems distributors, (iii) specialty distributors, and (iv) cash-andcarry and club stores. Customers commonly purchase from foodservice distributors in one or more of these different categories, or "channels, " mixing and matching to suit their needs. For example, customers may purchase products directly from a broadline distributor; they may contract with a brand-named food manufacturer ( e.g., Tyson Foods for chicken or Kellogg's for cereal) and use a broadline or systems distributor for warehousing and delivery; they may use specialty distributors for select items such as produce or seafood; or they may make their purchases at a cash-and-carry or club store ( e.g., Restaurant Depot or Costco).
Understanding these different channels of distribution and the different customers they serve is central to the antitrust analysis that this case demands. The court, therefore, describes below the sellers and buyers of foodservice distribution in the United States.
B. Channels of Foodservice Distribution
1. Broadline Distributors
Broadline distribution is characterized by several key features, including: (i) product breadth and depth; (ii) availability of private-label products; (iii) frequent and flexible delivery, including next-day service; and (iv) "value-added" services, such as menu and nutrition planning.
Broadline distributors offer thousands of distinct items for sale-known as "stock keeping units" ("SKUs") for inventory management purposes-in a wide array of product categories, including canned and dry goods, dairy, meat, poultry, produce, seafood, frozen foods, beverages, and even janitorial supplies such as chemicals, cleaning equipment, and paper goods. Broadliners also sell "private label" goods, which are akin to "Trader Joe's" or "Safeway" brand products found in those grocery stores. "Private label" products are often comparable in quality to their name-brand counterparts, but are cheaper in price. Because they are able to offer such a diverse array of products, broadline distributors market themselves to customers as a "one-stop shop, " by virtue of their ability to supply most-if not all-food and related products needed by their customers. Customers value the breadth of product offerings and the opportunity to aggregate a substantial portion of their purchases with one distributor, allowing them to save costs. They also appreciate broadliners' high level of customer service, which usually includes next-day and emergency deliveries. Focusing heavily on individualized customer service, broadline distributors employ much larger salesforces than the other channels.
Broadline distributors come in different sizes. The largest, by any measure, are Sysco and USF. In 2013, Sysco and USF made $]REDACTED/] billion and $]REDACTED/] billion in broadline sales, respectively. PX09350-236, Table 44. The next largest broadliner made less than $6 billion. Id. Sysco and USF are also the only two broadliners with true nationwide service capability. Sysco and USF have 72 and 61 distribution centers, respectively-each with more than twice the number of distribution centers operated by the next-largest broadliners. Because of their nationwide footprint, Sysco and USF are often referred to as "national" broadliners. Combined, Defendants employ over 14, 000 sales representatives. No other broadliner employs more than 1, 600. Defendants together operate over 13, 000 trucks. The next largest broadliners have just over 1, 600.
The next tier of companies are "regional broadliners, " so called because their distribution capabilities are concentrated in discrete regions of the United States. The largest regional broadliner, Performance Food Group ("PFG"), is the country's third-largest broadliner in terms of sales. PFG operates 24 broadline distribution facilities, mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the country and, in 2013, earned $6 billion in broadline revenue. The next five largest regional broadline distributors, in order of 2013 revenues, are: (i) Gordon Food Service, which has 10 distribution centers mainly in the Midwest, Florida, and Texas; (ii) Reinhart Foodservice, which has 24 distribution centers, primarily in the East and Midwest; (iii) Ben E. Keith Company, which has seven distribution centers in Texas and bordering states; (iv) Food Services of America, which has 10 distribution centers, concentrated in the Northwest; and (v) Shamrock Foods, which has four distribution centers in the Southwest and southern California. These regional broadliners had 2013 revenues ranging from approximately $]REDACTED/] billion to $]REDACTED/] billion.
The last tier of broadliners have five or fewer distribution centers and 2013 revenues of less than $1.1 billion. Many of these operate in a single locality or region, like Shetakis Wholesalers, which has one distribution center in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Regional broadline distributors have formed consortiums to compete for customers with multi-regional distribution needs. The largest consortium is Distribution Market Advantage ("DMA"). DMA is a supply chain sales and marketing cooperative owned by nine independent regional distributors, which are also its members, including Gordon Food Service, Ben E. Keith, and Reinhart Foodservice. DMA does not own any trucks or distribution facilities; rather, its purpose is to coordinate the bidding, contracting, and operational processes of its members to meet the needs of large customers that require a distributor with extensive geographic coverage. Another consortium is Multi-Unit Group ("MUG"), an alliance of 19 broadline distributors who are part of UniPro Foodservice, a larger consortium that includes distributors in different channels. As explained later, these regional consortia have had mixed results in competing for large, geographically dispersed customers.
2. Systems Distributors
Systems distributors, also referred to as "custom" or "customized" distributors, primarily serve fast food, quick service, fast casual, and casual chain restaurants (e.g., Burger King, Wendy's, and Applebee's), which have fixed or limited menus. Unlike broadliners, systems distributors do not carry a large, diverse number of SKUs. Rather, their inventory profile is a small number of proprietary SKUs, which are manufactured specifically for the customer. For instance, the systems distributor for Wendy's carries and delivers the food products needed for Wendy's' menu and does not make those products available to others. As a result, systems distributors typically provide only warehousing and transport services. They do not offer private label products or value-added services such as menu planning, and they have very small salesforces, if any. Systems distributors make large, limited-SKU deliveries on a fixed, limited schedule, and typically do not offer next-day or emergency deliveries.
Some foodservice distribution companies operate both systems and broadline divisions. For instance, Sysco operates SYGMA, a systems distribution division. SYGMA is run by a different set of executives and, for the most part, operated out of separate distribution centers. PFG offers systems distribution through PFG Customized, which is run separately from its broadline division.
3. Specialty Distributors
Specialty distributors offer a limited and focused grouping of products within one or more product categories-typically fresh produce, meat, seafood, dairy or baked goods. Other specialty distributors focus on a specific type of cuisine, such as Italian fare. Many customers, especially independent restaurants, use specialty distributors to supplement their purchases from broadline distributors because the specialty distributor offers higher quality or fresher products than the broadline distributor or provides unique products that the broadline distributor does not carry, such as products from local farmers. Both in terms of number of SKUs and geographic coverage, specialty distributors are typically smaller than broadline distributors.
To compete with specialty distributors, some broadliners operate specialty divisions. Sysco, for instance, operates several specialty divisions separately from its broadline division. So, too, does PFG, which operates Roma, a specialty division for Italian food products.
4. Cash-and-Carry and Club Stores
Cash-and-carry stores offer a "self-service" model of food distribution, in which customers make purchases at the store and transport the purchased goods themselves. Club stores like Costco and Sam's Club also fall within this distribution channel. With limited exceptions, cash-and-carry stores do not deliver. They also offer fewer products than broadline distributors. For example, the largest cash-and-carry store, Restaurant Depot, only carries up to ]REDACTED/] SKUs. Additionally, cash-and-carry stores do not have sales personnel dedicated to individual customers. Because of these features, the prices offered by cash-and-carry stores are significantly lower than those offered by broadliners. The typical cash-and-carry customer is an independent restaurant that either does not meet broadline distributors' minimum purchase requirements or needs to supplement its broadline deliveries.
C. Foodservice Distribution Customers
Foodservice distribution customers are a heterogeneous group. The largest customers, such as group purchasing organizations and foodservice management companies, buy hundreds of millions of dollars of product a year, whereas a single independent restaurant buys a small fraction of that amount. Some customers choose to buy from a single line of distribution; others mix distribution channels. Some customers demand fixed pricing, whereas others buy based on daily market rates. Generally speaking, however, customers can be grouped into several categories.
1. Group Purchasing Organizations
Group purchasing organizations, or GPOs, are entities that, through the collective buying power of their members, obtain lower prices for foodservice products. GPOs negotiate direct contracts with food manufacturers and thereby secure lower prices than a member could individually.
GPOs do not have their own distribution capabilities. Rather, they contract with broadline distributors for warehousing, delivery, and operational services. When a member purchases a GPO-contracted good, the member pays the broadliner on a "cost-plus" basis: it pays for the "cost" of the product based on the GPO's contract with the manufacturer, "plus" the distributor's markup, which is negotiated between the GPO and distributor. GPOs also contract with broadliners to allow their members to purchase products from broadline distributors (rather than from manufacturers), in which case they pay the broadline distributor both the distribution margin (markup) and the cost for the product set by the distributor. GPO members also buy from specialty distributors.
GPOs are prominent in the healthcare and hospitality industries. The largest healthcare GPOs include Premier, Novation, and Navigator. One of the largest hospitality GPOs is Avendra. These companies annually spend hundreds of millions of dollars on broadline distribution.
2. Foodservice Management Companies
Foodservice management companies operate cafeterias or other dining facilities at educational institutions, sports venues, and workplaces. Like GPOs, foodservice management companies negotiate contracts with food manufacturers and rely on broadliners for storage and delivery; they also purchase directly from broadliners and specialty distributors. Sodexo, Compass Group, and Aramark are among the country's largest foodservice management companies. Those three companies each spend approximately $]REDACTED/] billion annually on broadline distribution.
3. Hospitality Chains
Hospitality chains are also large purchasers. Hilton Hotels, for example, uses a system similar to a GPO. It has a subsidiary, Hilton Supply Management LLC, which negotiates contracts on behalf of over 4, 000 members to obtain food and related items at a discounted price. Other hospitality companies, such as Hyatt Hotels, purchase most of their foodservice products through Avendra, the largest hospitality GPO. Starwood Hotels and Interstate Hotels & Resorts, on the other hand, directly manage food procurement and distribution contracts for their properties. Regardless of the food purchasing model, hospitality chains also buy food directly from broadliners and rely on them for their storage and delivery needs. These companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars annually on broadline distribution. Individual hotels and resorts also buy directly from specialty distributors, as needed.
4. Restaurant Chains
Restaurant chains come in many sizes with a wide variety of characteristics. This customer category includes nationwide fast food or quick service restaurants such as Burger King and Subway, each with thousands of locations in all regions of the country. It also includes regional fast casual restaurant chains such as Culver's (primarily in the Midwest) and Zaxby's (primarily in the Southeast), as well as nationwide sit-down restaurant chains, such as Applebee's and Cheesecake Factory. The channel of distribution a chain restaurant uses depends, in part, on the number of locations and menu variety. The greater the number of locations and the fewer the menu items, the more amenable the chain restaurant is to systems distribution.
5. Government Agencies
Some government agencies, notably the Defense Logistics Agency and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, are large buyers of broadline distribution services. Those agencies, for instance, spend hundreds of millions of dollars each year on broadline foodservice.
6. "Street" Customers
Customers with only one location, or a handful of locations, are referred to in the industry as "street, " "local, " or "independent" customers. Examples of this type of customer include independent restaurants and resorts. Unlike the types of customers identified above, street customers usually do not have written contracts with broadliners; instead, they negotiate prices on a weekly or other short term basis. They also tend to diversify their purchases among multiple distribution channels. Indeed, according to a study conducted by an industry trade group, the International Foodservice Distributors Association, the typical independent customer uses up to twelve different supply sources. DX-00293 at 29.
II. CASE HISTORY
A. Sysco and USF
Defendant Sysco is a publicly-traded corporation headquartered in Houston, Texas. As the largest North American foodservice distributor, Sysco distributes food to approximately 425, 000 customers in the United States, generating sales of about $46.5 billion in fiscal year 2014. Compl. for TRO and Prelim. Inj. Pursuant to Section 13(b) of the FTC Act, ECF No. 3 at ¶ 24 [hereinafter Compl.]. Sysco's business is divided into three divisions: (i) Broadline (81 percent of revenue); (ii) SYGMA, which provides systems distribution (13 percent of revenue); and (iii) "Other, " which provides, among other things, specialty produce distribution (6 percent of revenue). Id. ¶ 25. Sysco's broadline division operates out of 72 distribution centers located across the United States. Id.
Defendant U.S. Foods, Inc., is a privately-held corporation based in Rosemont, Illinois, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Defendant USF Holding Corp. USF is controlled by the investment funds of Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, Inc., and KKR & Co., L.P. The second-largest foodservice distributor in the United States, USF operates 61 broadline distribution centers across the country and serves over 200, 000 customers nationwide. Id. ¶ 27. In fiscal year 2013, USF generated approximately $22 billion in revenue. Id.
B. History of the Merger
On December 8, 2013, Sysco and USF signed a definitive merger agreement, whereby Sysco agreed to acquire all shares of USF for $500 million in cash and $3 billion in newly issued Sysco equity. Sysco also agreed to assume $4.7 billion in USF's existing debt, for a total transaction value of $8.2 billion. The merger agreement expires on September 8, 2015.
After announcing the merger, Defendants filed a notification regarding the merger as required by the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18a. As a result of this filing, the FTC commenced an investigation to determine the effects of the proposed combination. The FTC is an administrative agency of the United States federal government that derives its authority from the Federal Trade Commission Act ("FTC Act"), 15 U.S.C. §§ 41 et seq. Among other duties, the FTC is vested with authority and responsibility for enforcing Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, and Section 5 of the FTC Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45.
During the FTC's investigation, and with the hope of gaining regulatory approval, on February 2, 2015, Sysco and USF announced an asset purchase agreement with regional broadline distributor Performance Food Group, Inc. ("PFG"), to sell 11 of USF's 61 distribution centers to PFG, contingent upon the successful completion of the merger. The 11 USF distribution centers- intended to increase PFG's geographic footprint-are, for the most part, located within the western half of the country, where PFG at present has only one distribution center. Currently, the 11 distribution centers account for approximately $4.5 billion in broadline sales. PX09250-011. The parties also executed a Transition Services Agreement. Under the two agreements, PFG would acquire all assets and employees at the 11 distribution centers, all customers under those contracts (assuming the customers consent), and the right to use USF private label products at those facilities for up to three years.
C. History of these Proceedings
On February 19, 2015, the Commissioners of the FTC voted 3-2 to authorize the filing of an administrative complaint in the FTC's Article I court to block the proposed merger, based on a finding that there was reason to believe that the merger would violate Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, and Section 5 of the FTC Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45. Trial before an Administrative Law Judge is scheduled to begin on July 21, 2015.
Also, on February 19, 2015, the Commission authorized the FTC staff to seek a preliminary injunction in federal court under Section 13(b) of the FTC Act in order to prevent Defendants from completing the merger. The FTC filed this action on February 20, 2015, seeking a temporary restraining order ("TRO") and preliminary injunction to maintain the status quo until the conclusion of the administrative trial. The FTC is joined in this action by the District of Columbia and the following states: California, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia (collectively, the "Plaintiff States"). By and through their respective Attorneys General, the Plaintiff States have joined with the FTC in this action pursuant to Section 16 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 26, in their sovereign or quasisovereign capacities as parens patriae on behalf of the citizens, general welfare, and economy of each of their states.
On February 24, 2015, Defendants stipulated to a TRO, agreeing not to merge until three calendar days after this court rules on the FTC's Motion for Preliminary Injunction. The court entered the stipulated TRO on February 27, 2015. Defendants have since represented that they will abandon the transaction if this court grants the preliminary injunction.
On March 4, 2015, the court scheduled a preliminary injunction hearing to start on May 5, 2015. The parties' counsel accomplished an extraordinary amount of work in the two months leading up to the evidentiary hearing. They exchanged approximately 14.8 million documents and took 72 depositions. Moreover, in addition to the more than 90 industry participant declarations that accompanied the FTC's motion for preliminary injunction, Defendants obtained 65 new declarations or counter declarations, while the FTC obtained an additional 25 new or counter declarations. During the eight-day evidentiary hearing, the court heard testimony from 20 witnesses, either live or via video deposition. The parties submitted a total of 185 declarations into evidence, as well as over 3, 500 exhibits and excerpts of over 70 depositions. The court heard closing arguments on May 28, 2015.
I. SECTION 7 OF THE CLAYTON ACT
Section 7 of the Clayton Act prohibits mergers or acquisitions "the effect of [which] may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly" in "any line of commerce or in any activity affecting commerce in any section of the country." 15 U.S.C. § 18. When the FTC has "reason to believe that a corporation is violating, or is about to violate, Section 7 of the Clayton Act, " it may seek a preliminary injunction under Section 13(b) of the FTC Act to "prevent a merger pending the Commission's administrative adjudication of the merger's legality." FTC v. Staples, Inc., 970 F.Supp. 1066, 1070 (D.D.C. 1997) (citing 15 U.S.C. § 53(b)). "Section 13(b) provides for the grant of a preliminary injunction where such action would be in the public interest-as determined by a weighing of the equities and a consideration of the Commission's likelihood of success on the merits." FTC v. H.J. Heinz Co., 246 F.3d 708, 714 (D.C. Cir. 2001) (citing 15 U.S.C. § 53(b)).
II. SECTION 13(B) STANDARD FOR PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS
The Section 13(b) standard for preliminary injunctions differs from the familiar equity standard applied in other contexts. As the Court of Appeals explained in Heinz : "Congress intended this standard to depart from what it regarded as the then-traditional equity standard, which it characterized as requiring the plaintiff to show: (1) irreparable damage, (2) probability of success on the merits and (3) a balance of equities favoring the plaintiff." 246 F.3d at 714 (internal citation omitted). The court continued: "Congress determined that the traditional standard was not appropriate for the implementation of a Federal statute by an independent regulatory agency where the standards of the public interest measure the propriety and the need for injunctive relief.' Id. (quoting H.R. Rep. No. 93-624 at 31 (1971)); see also FTC v. Exxon Corp., 636 F.2d 1336, 1343 (D.C. Cir. 1980) ("In enacting [Section 13(b)], Congress further demonstrated its concern that injunctive relief be broadly available to the FTC by incorporating a unique public interest' standard in 15 U.S.C. [§] 53(b), rather than the more stringent, traditional equity' standard for injunctive relief").
Under Section 13(b)'s "public interest" standard, "[t]he FTC is not required to establish that the proposed merger would in fact violate section 7 of the Clayton Act." Heinz, 246 F.3d at 714. Rather, to demonstrate the likelihood of success on the merits, "the government need only show that there is a reasonable probability that the challenged transaction will substantially impair competition." Staples, 970 F.Supp. at 1072 (citation omitted) (internal quotation marks omitted).
A trial court evaluating a demand for injunctive relief therefore must "measure the probability that, after an administrative hearing on the merits, the Commission will succeed in proving that the effect of the [proposed] merger may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly' in violation of section 7 of the Clayton Act.' Heinz, 246 F.3d at 714 (quoting 15 U.S.C. § 18). The FTC satisfies this standard if it "has raised questions going to the merits so serious, substantial, difficult and doubtful as to make them fair ground for thorough investigation, study, deliberation and determination by the FTC in the first instance and ultimately by the Court of Appeals." Id. at 714-15 (citations omitted) (internal quotation marks omitted). This standard reflects Congress' use of the words "may be substantially to lessen competition" in Section 7, as Congress' concern "was with probabilities, not certainties" of decreased competition. Id. at 713 (citing Brown Shoe Co. v. United States, 370 U.S. 294, 323 (1962)) (other citations omitted).
Though more relaxed than the traditional equity injunction standard, Section 13(b)'s public interest standard nevertheless demands rigorous proof to block a proposed merger or acquisition. "[T]he issuance of a preliminary injunction prior to a full trial on the merits is an extraordinary and drastic remedy." Exxon, 636 F.2d at 1343 (citations omitted) (internal quotation marks omitted). That is because "the issuance of a preliminary injunction blocking an acquisition or merger may prevent the transaction from ever being consummated." Id. "Given the stakes, the FTC's burden is not insubstantial...." FTC v. Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d 109, 123 (D.D.C. 2004), case dismissed, No. 04-5291, 2004 WL 2066879 (D.C. Cir. Sept. 15, 2004). "[A] showing of a fair or tenable chance of success on the merits will not suffice for injunctive relief." Id. (citation omitted) (internal quotation marks omitted).
III. BAKER HUGHES BURDEN-SHIFTING FRAMEWORK
In United States v. Baker Hughes, Inc., 908 F.2d 981, 982-83 (D.C. Cir. 1990), the Court of Appeals established a burden-shifting framework for evaluating the FTC's likelihood of success on the merits. See Heinz, 246 F.3d at 715 (applying Baker Hughes "to the preliminary injunctive relief stage"). Under the Baker Hughes framework, the FTC bears the initial burden of showing that the merger would lead to "undue concentration in the market for a particular product in a particular geographic area." Baker Hughes, 908 F.2d at 982; see also Heinz, 246 F.3d at 715 (quoting United States v. Phila. Nat'l Bank, 374 U.S. 321, 363 (1963)) ("[T]he government must show that the merger would produce a firm controlling an undue percentage share of the relevant market, and [would] result[ ] in a significant increase in the concentration of firms in that market."). Such a showing establishes a "presumption" that the merger will substantially lessen competition. Baker Hughes, 908 F.2d at 982.
The burden then shifts to the defendant to rebut the presumption by offering proof that "the market-share statistics [give] an inaccurate account of the [merger's] probable effects on competition in the relevant market." Heinz, 246 F.3d at 715 (quoting United States v. Citizens & S. Nat'l Bank, 422 U.S. 86, 120 (1975)) (internal quotation marks omitted); see also Baker Hughes, 908 F.2d at 991 ("[A] defendant seeking to rebut a presumption of anticompetitive effect must show that the prima facie case inaccurately predicts the relevant transaction's probable effect on future competition."). "The more compelling the prima facie case, the more evidence the defendant must present to rebut it successfully." Baker Hughes, 908 F.2d at 991. "A defendant can make the required showing by affirmatively showing why a given transaction is unlikely to substantially lessen competition, or by discrediting the data underlying the initial presumption in the government's favor." Id.
"If the defendant successfully rebuts the presumption, the burden of producing additional evidence of anticompetitive effect shifts to the government, and merges with the ultimate burden of persuasion, which remains with the government at all times." Id. at 983. "[A] failure of proof in any respect will mean the transaction should not be enjoined." Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d at 116. The court must also weigh the equities, but if the FTC is unable to demonstrate a likelihood of success, the equities alone cannot justify an injunction. Id.
I. THE RELEVANT MARKET
Merger analysis starts with defining the relevant market. United States v. Marine Bancorp., 418 U.S. 602, 618 (1974) (Market definition is "a necessary predicate' to deciding whether a merger contravenes the Clayton Act.") (quoting United States v. E.I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co., 353 U.S. 586, 593 (1957)); see also FTC v. Swedish Match, 131 F.Supp.2d 151, 156 (D.D.C. 2000). The relevant market has two component parts. "First, the relevant product market' identifies the product and services with which the defendants' products compete. Second, the relevant geographic market' identifies the geographic area in which the defendant competes in marketing its products or service." Arch Coal, Inc., 329 F.Supp.2d at 119; see also FTC v. CCC Holdings Inc., 605 F.Supp.2d 26, 37 (D.D.C. 2009) (same). "Defining the relevant market is critical in an antitrust case because the legality of the proposed merger[ ] in question almost always depends upon the market power of the parties involved." FTC v. Cardinal Health, Inc., 12 F.Supp.2d 34, 45 (D.D.C. 1998).
Market definition has been the parties' primary battlefield in this case. According to the FTC, the relevant product market is broadline foodservice distribution. Compl. ¶ 40. Because broadline distribution is defined by a number of distinct attributes-such as a vast array of product offerings, private label offerings, next-day delivery, and value-added services-the FTC contends that the other modes of distribution are not reasonable substitutes for broadline distribution and thus must be excluded from the product market.
The FTC further contends that, within the product market for broadline distribution, there is another product market for foodservice distribution sold to "national" customers. Id. ¶ 44. These customers, the FTC asserts, are distinct from "local" or "street" customers in multiple respects. National customers have a nationwide or multi-regional footprint and, because of that footprint, typically contract with a broadliner that has geographically dispersed distribution centers; they usually make purchases under a single contract that offers price, product, and service consistency across all facilities; and they award contracts through a request for proposal or bilateral negotiations. National customers include, among others, GPOs, foodservice management companies, hospitality chains, and national chain restaurants. By contrast, the FTC says, the typical "local" or "street" customer is an independent restaurant, which does not require multiple, geographically dispersed distribution centers; purchases in smaller quantities; and ordinarily does not have a contract with its foodservice distributor(s) as it negotiates purchases on a weekly or other short-term basis. The FTC contends that for national customers the geographic market is nationwide. For local customers, it argues that the geographic market is localized near Defendants' distribution centers.
Defendants counter that the foodservice distribution market cannot be sliced and diced as advocated by the FTC. According to Defendants, the relevant market is the entire $231 billion foodservice distribution industry, consisting not only of broadline food distributors, but also specialty distributors, systems distributors, and cash-and-carry stores. All of these modes of distribution, Defendants argue, compete for foodservice distribution customer spending. Based on this market definition, Defendants assert that together, they make up approximately 25 percent of total foodservice distribution sales. They also dispute that there is a product market for "national customers, " asserting that such a market has been created by the FTC out of whole cloth to artificially inflate Defendants' market shares. According to the FTC, Defendants combined have, at least, a 59 percent share of the national customer product market.
A. Broadline Distribution as a Relevant Product Market
1. Legal Principles Affecting the Definition of the Relevant Product Market
The Supreme Court in Brown Shoe set forth the general rule for defining a product market: "The outer boundaries of a product market are determined by the reasonable interchangeability of use or the cross-elasticity of demand between the product itself and substitutes for it." Brown Shoe, 370 U.S. at 325. Stated another way, a product market includes all goods that are reasonable substitutes, even though the products themselves are not entirely the same. Cardinal Health, 12 F.Supp.2d at 46; Staples, Inc., 970 F.Supp. at 1074 (stating the question as "whether two products can be used for the same purpose, and if so, whether and to what extent purchasers are willing to substitute one for the other").
Whether goods are "reasonable substitutes" depends on two factors: functional interchangeability and cross-elasticity of demand. "Functional interchangeability" refers to whether buyers view similar products as substitutes. See id. ("Whether there are other products available to consumers which are similar in character or use to the products in question may be termed functional interchangeability."). "If consumers can substitute the use of one for the other, then the products in question will be deemed functionally interchangeable.' Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d at 119; see also United States v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 351 U.S. 377, 393 (1956)) ("Determination of the competitive market for commodities depends on how different from one another are the offered commodities in character or use, how far buyers will go to substitute one commodity for another."). "Courts will generally include functionally interchangeable products in the same product market unless factors other than use indicate that they are not actually part of the same market." Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d at 119.
As for cross-elasticity of demand, there the question turns in part on price. E.I. Du Pont De Nemours, 351 U.S. at 400 ("An element for consideration as to cross-elasticity of demand between products is the responsiveness of the sales of one product to price changes of the other."). If an increase in the price for product A causes a substantial number of customers to switch to product B, the products compete in the same market. See id. ("If a slight decrease in the price of cellophane causes a considerable number of customers of other flexible wrappings to switch to cellophane, it would be an indication... that the products compete in the same market"); Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d at 120. Price is not, however, the only variable in determining the crosselasticity of demand between products. Cross-elasticity of demand also depends on the "ease and speed with which customers can substitute [the product] and the desirability of doing so." FTC v. Whole Foods Market, Inc., 548 F.3d 1028, 1037 (D.C. Cir. 2008) (Brown, J.). Thus, substitution based on a reduction in price will not correlate to a high cross-elasticity of demand unless the switch can be accomplished without the consumer incurring undue expense or inconvenience. See Phila. Nat'l Bank, 374 U.S. at 358 (observing that "[t]he factor of inconvenience localizes banking competition as effectively as high transportation costs in other industries").
Three other established principles are critical to defining the relevant product market in this case. The first is that the "product" that comprises the market need not be a discrete good for sale. As the Supreme Court has made clear: "We see no barrier to combining in a single market a number of different products or services where that combination reflects commercial realities." United States v. Grinnell Corp., 384 U.S. 563, 572 (1966); Phila. Nat'l Bank, 374 U.S. at 356 (citation omitted) (finding that "the cluster of products... and services... denoted by the term commercial banking'... composes a distinct line of commerce"). Thus, what is relevant for consideration here is not any particular food item sold or delivered by Defendants, but the full panoply of products and services offered by them that customers recognize as "broadline distribution."
Second, "the mere fact that a firm may be termed a competitor in the overall marketplace does not necessarily require that it be included in the relevant product market for antitrust purposes." Staples, 970 F.Supp. at 1075; Cardinal Health, 12 F.Supp.2d at 47 (same). That is because market definition hinges on whether consumers view the products as "reasonable substitutes." Cardinal Health, 12 F.Supp.2d at 46. So, for example, fruit can be bought from both a grocery store and a fruit stand, but no one would reasonably assert that buying all of one's groceries from a fruit stand is a reasonable substitute for buying from a grocery store. See Whole Foods, 548 F.3d at 1040 (Brown, J.) ("The fact that a customer might buy a stick of gum at a supermarket or at a convenience store does not mean there is no definable groceries market."). Thus, as applicable here, the fact that buyers may cross-shop between modes of food distribution does not necessarily make them part of the same market for the purpose of merger analysis.
Third, market definition is guided by the "narrowest market" principle. Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d at 120. That is, "a relevant market cannot meaningfully encompass [an] infinite range [of products]. The circle must be drawn narrowly to exclude any other product to which, within reasonable variations in price, only a limited number of buyers will turn." Times-Picayune Publ g Co. v. United States, 345 U.S. 594, 612 n.31 (1953). Judge Bates in Arch Coal succinctly described the "narrowest market" principle in practice as follows:
The analysis begins by examining the most narrowly-defined product or group of products sold by the merging firms to ascertain if the evidence and data support the conclusion that this product or group of products constitutes a relevant market. If not, the analysis shifts to the next broadest product grouping to test whether that is a relevant market. This process continues until a relevant market is identified.
Arch Coal, 329 F.Supp.2d at 120; see also United States v. H&R Block, Inc., 833 F.Supp.2d 36, 58-60 (D.D.C. 2011) (explaining "the principle that the relevant product market should ordinarily be defined as the smallest product market that will satisfy the hypothetical monopolist test").
The critical question here, therefore, is whether broadline food distribution qualifies as the relevant product market, or whether the product market should be expanded to include other modes of distribution.
2. The Brown Shoe "Practical Indicia"
Courts look to two main types of evidence in defining the relevant product market: the "practical indicia" set forth by the Supreme Court in Brown Shoe and testimony from experts in the field of economics. The court turns first to the Brown Shoe factors.
According to Brown Shoe, "[t]he boundaries of [a product market] may be determined by examining such practical indicia as industry or public recognition..., the product's peculiar characteristics and uses, unique production facilities, distinct customers, distinct prices, sensitivity to price changes, and specialized vendors." Brown Shoe, 370 U.S. at 325. "These indicia seem to be evidentiary proxies for direct proof of substitutability." Rothery Storage & Van Co. v. Atlas Van Lines, Inc., 792 F.2d 210, 218 (D.C. Cir. 1986); H&R Block, 833 F.Supp.2d at 51. Courts have relied on the Brown Shoe factors in a number of cases to define the relevant product market. See, e.g., Staples, 970 F.Supp. at 1075-80; Cardinal Health, 12 F.Supp.2d at 46-48; Swedish Match, 131 F.Supp.2d at 159-64; CCC Holdings, 605 F.Supp.2d at 39-44; H&R Block, 833 F.Supp.2d at 51-60.
The court finds that the Brown Shoe factors support the FTC's position that broadline foodservice distribution is the relevant product market for evaluating the proposed merger. As discussed below, an analysis of those factors demonstrates that other modes of foodservice distribution are not functionally interchangeable with broadline foodservice distribution.
a. Product breadth and diversity
The most distinguishing feature of broadline distribution is its product breadth and diversity. Broadliners stock thousands of SKUs across every major food and food-related category in their distribution centers. See Staples, 970 F.Supp. at 1078 (comparing SKU selections among different sales outlets). The average Sysco or USF distribution center carries over]REDACTED/] SKUs. Regional broadliners carry fewer SKUs than Defendants, but still maintain between 6, 000 to 19, 000 SKUs in their distribution centers. PX09350-215, Table 22. Broadliners also offer "private label" products, which are a broadliner's branded products. Sysco has over]REDACTED/] private-label SKUs, and USF has over]REDACTED/]. PX09350-219, Table 32. This product breadth and diversity enables broadliners to serve a wide variety of customers and to be a one-stop shop, if the customer wishes. As USF's Executive Vice President of Strategy David Schreibman testified at the FTC's Investigational Hearing: "[W]e have such a broad selection of SKUs because that is a key consideration of our customer base, you have to have what they want." Investig'l Hr'g Tr., PX00590-006 at 24.
The other distribution channels pale in comparison to broadline in terms of product breadth and diversity. Systems distributors carry a limited number of SKUs-usually only a few thousand-in their distribution centers. PX09350-215, Table 22. These SKUs are ordinarily proprietary in nature and used only by the customers for which they were developed, meaning that systems products are not readily sellable to other customers. Specialty distributors also carry a limited number of SKUs, usually for niche products-such as fresh produce, meat, seafood, dairy, or bakery items-which tend to complement broadline offerings. As Sysco's CEO William DeLaney explained: "We own [specialty] to create great traction with our customers, ... we felt we had some gaps in our [broadline] product offerings, whether it was special produce, special cut steaks...." Investig'l Hr'g Tr., PX00580-010 at 38. Cash-and-carry stores likewise do not have the same breadth and diversity of products as broadline distributors. One of the largest cash-andcarry stores, Restaurant Depot, carries ]REDACTED/] SKUs. USF's CHEF'STORE carries less than 4, 000. PX09350-216, Table 26. A number of customer declarants stated that cash-and-carry store products tended to be less uniform and inferior in quality to products carried by broadliners.
b. Distinct facilities and operations
No one entering a systems, specialty, or cash-and-carry outlet would mistake it for a broadline distribution facility. See Staples, 970 F.Supp. at 1079 ("No one entering a Wal-Mart would mistake it for an office superstore.... You certainly know an office superstore when you see one."). Broadline distribution centers are massive. The average size of a Sysco distribution center is over 380, 000 square feet; for USF, it is over 270, 000 square feet. Some regional distributors also have distribution centers ranging from 200, 000 to 400, 000 square feet. PX09350-215, Table 25. Non-broadline facilities are generally smaller in size and cannot readily be converted into a broadline facility or accommodate broadline customers.
Broadline facilities also have large salesforces attached to them. Broadline facilities typically have dozens of sales representatives, while systems distributors have few sales representatives at their facilities. PX09350-215, Table 23. Cash-and-carry stores generally do not have dedicated account representatives at all. Because the model of distribution is self-service, cash-and-carry sales representatives do not learn the individualized needs of their customers in a systematic manner.
Additional proof that broadline foodservice distribution is a separate product market comes from the corporate structure of large foodservice distributors. Major foodservice distributors offer distribution in other channels besides broadline, but they run those businesses separately from their broadline businesses. See, e.g., H&R Block, 833 F.Supp.2d at 56 (observing that digital do-ityourself tax preparation was a distinct product market from assisted tax preparation because H&R Block ran them as "separate business units"). Sysco runs its systems distribution business, SYGMA, as a separate division. So, too, does PFG, which runs a systems business known as PFG Customized. Sysco also runs separate specialty divisions, such as Fresh Point, a fresh produce supplier. So, too, does PFG, which has its own specialty division, Roma, which supplies Italian restaurants and pizza parlors. And USF runs a separate cash-and-carry operation, CHEF'STORE. This type of corporate structuring shows that those who run and manage foodservice companies view broadline as distinct from other modes of distribution.
Timely and reliable delivery is critical in the food distribution industry. Unless customers can get the food they want when they need it, their businesses are at risk of losing clients and money. Broadliners have the capacity-due in large part to their extensive fleet of service vehicles, PX09350-217, Table 29-to offer frequent and flexible delivery schedules to meet customer needs, including next-day delivery. Ample evidence shows that, for a wide array of broadline customers-from large GPOs to individually-owned restaurants-next-day delivery is crucial to meeting their needs.
Neither systems distributors nor cash-and-carry stores offer the same degree of frequency and flexibility of delivery as broadliners. Systems distributors tend to make large, limited-SKU deliveries on a fixed schedule. Also, systems fleets, on average, travel longer distances than broadline fleets to make deliveries. Carry-and-carry stores, for the most part, do not deliver. Rather, their primary model is self-service-that is, the customer transports the merchandise on her own. Some cash-and-carry outlets do offer delivery options. Costco, for example, offers limited-mileage delivery from some of its stores, and Restaurant Depot leases refrigerated trucks to its best customers. But those programs are quite limited and cannot substitute for the comprehensive and flexible delivery networks offered by broadliners to all of their customers.
d. Customer service and value-added services
Another distinguishing feature of broadline distributors is their high degree of customer service and value-added service offerings. For example, broadliners offer menu and nutritionalmeal planning services to, among others, healthcare, hospitality, and restaurant customers. They also offer value-added services at their distribution facilities, such as food safety training and new product updates. Other modes of delivery do not generally offer comparable value-added services.
c. Distinct customers
Due in large part to the breadth of their product and service offerings, broadliners are capable of serving a wide range of customers, including classes of customers that the other channels cannot reach. Systems is a more efficient and cost-effective mode of distribution for fast food and quick service restaurants. Specialty distributors can provide higher quality and fresher products in certain categories, but have limited product offerings and charge higher prices than broadliners. Cash-and-carry stores are less expensive and more accessible for buyers such as independent restaurants, but their lack of delivery service makes them unsuitable for the large majority of foodservice customers.
These other channels, therefore, simply cannot and do not serve as wide an array of customers as broadliners do. The largest broadline customers, such as GPOs, foodservice management companies, and hospitality providers, cannot use systems or cash-and-carry for their needs. They purchase only modest quantities of product from specialty distributors. Even most independent restaurants cannot use cash-and-carry stores as a reasonable substitute for their broadliner, even though such stores offer lower prices.
f. Distinct pricing
Broadliners generally compete only against other broadliners on pricing. PFG's President and CEO, George Holm, who has over 37 years of industry experience, testified that systems and specialty distributors do not significantly affect the pricing and services that PFG offers to its customers. Hr'g Tr. 575-76, 643. And, although broadliners recognize that cash-and-carry stores provide lower prices, the record does not show broadliners benchmarking their prices against cashand-carry stores or lowering prices to compete with them. To the contrary, as USF's Executive Vice President of Strategy David Schreibman succinctly stated in an email comparing pricing between USF as a broadliner and its own cash-and-carry division, CHEF'STORE: "In the store, we will be competitive with ]REDACTED/] on a similar cost model. On the truck, we will be competitive with broadline distributors on a similar cost model." PX03114-003.
g. Industry or public recognition
Overwhelmingly, the evidence shows that players in the foodservice distribution industry-both its suppliers and customers-recognize broadline, systems, specialty, and cashand-carry to be distinct modes of distribution. See Rothery Storage, 792 F.2d at 219 n.4 ("The industry or public recognition of the submarket as a separate economic' unit matters because we assume that economic actors usually have accurate perceptions of economic realities."). The court received both live and out-of-court sworn testimony from Defendants' executives; executives from other broadline distributors; officers of non-broadline companies; and customers, large and small. They uniformly observed that these modes of distribution are distinct in the variety of ways described above. In short, the industry widely recognizes that broadline distributors offer a unique cluster of products and services that is not functionally interchangeable with other modes of distribution.
h. Defendants' response to Brown Shoe "practical indicia"
Defendants do not, for the most part, contest the above-described distinctions between broadline and other channels of distribution. Instead, Defendants contend that defining the relevant market to include only broadliners "misunderstands consumer behavior." Memo of Defs. Sysco Corp., USF Holding Corp. and U.S. Foods, Inc., in Opp'n to Pls.' Mot. for A Prelim. Inj., ECF No. 130 at 19 [hereinafter Defs.' Opp'n Br.]. They argue "customers simultaneously can, and routinely do, choose to patronize competitors of all stripes offering fungible goods through different but overlapping distribution channels." Id. What matters, Defendants claim, is that nonbroadliners are able to constrain a broadliner's pricing by competing for customers who are able to move their entire purchasing, or portions of their purchasing, between channels. Id. at 19 ("Whether a substitute channel is a comprehensive' substitute is irrelevant to that question."). Defendants offer as one compelling example the burger chain Five Guys, which recently reallocated over $300 million in annual business from USF to a collection of regional broadliners and systems distributors.
Defendants are indisputably correct that customers buy across channels, especially independent restaurants. They are also unquestionably correct that some customers, particularly quick service and fast food restaurant chains, are capable of moving large segments of business from broadline to systems. But the fact that Defendants sometimes compete against other channels of distribution in the larger marketplace does not mean that those alternative channels belong in the relevant product market for purposes of merger analysis. See Staples, 970 F.Supp. at 1075 ("[T]he mere fact that a firm may be termed a competitor in the overall marketplace does not necessarily require that it be included in the relevant product market for antitrust purposes."); see also Phillip E. Areeda & Herbert Hovenkamp, Antitrust Law: An Analysis of Antitrust Principles and Their Application ¶ 565b (4th ed. 2014) ("[I]t would be improper to group complementary goods into the same relevant market just because they occasionally substitute for one another. Substitution must be effective to hold the primary good to a price near its costs[.]").
Two key decisions from this jurisdiction, Whole Foods and Staples, support this conclusion. In Whole Foods, the question was whether there existed a product market for premium natural and organic supermarkets ("PNOS") separate from ordinary supermarkets. The Court of Appeals' ultimate decision was fractured-each judge issued a separate opinion, leaving no controlling opinion from the Court. Two judges, however, concluded that PNOS is a separate product market from ordinary supermarkets, even though there was evidence that customers "cross-shopp[ed]" between the two. 548 F.3d at 1040 (Brown, J.); id. ("But the fact that PNOS and ordinary supermarkets are direct competitors in some submarkets... is not the end of the inquiry.") (quoting United States v. Conn. Nat. Bank, 418 U.S. 656, 664 n.3 (1974)); id. at 1048 (Tatel, J.) ("That Whole Foods and Wild Oats have attracted many customers away from conventional grocery stores by offering extensive selections of natural and organic products thus tells us nothing about whether [they] should be treated as operating in the same market as conventional grocery stores."). Both judges agreed that just because customers were able to buy some categories of grocery products from both outlets-similar to how broadline customers are able to purchase some products from other modes of distribution-did not mean that PNOS was in the same product market as grocery stores. See id. at 1040 (Brown, J.) (citing testimony that "Whole Foods ...