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Fox TV Stations, Inc. v. FilmOn X LLC

United States District Court, D. Columbia.

December 2, 2015

FOX TELEVISION STATIONS, INC., et al., Plaintiffs,
v.
FILMON X LLC, et al., Defendants

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[Copyrighted Material Omitted]

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[Copyrighted Material Omitted]

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          For Fox Television Stations, Inc., Plaintiff: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Julie Ann Shepard PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Richard L. Stone PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Plaintiff: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Julie Ann Shepard PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Richard L. Stone PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Fox Broadcasting Company, Inc., Plaintiff: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Julie Ann Shepard PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Richard L. Stone PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Nbc Subsidiary (Wrc-Tv), LLC, Plaintiff: John Charles Ulin LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Nbc Studios LLC, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Universal Network Television LLC, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Open 4 Business Productions LLC, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Telemundo Network Group LLC,, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Disney Enterprises, Inc., Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Allbritton Communications Company, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Cbs Broadcasting, Inc.,, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Cbs Studios, Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Tegna Inc., Plaintiff: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Filmon.Tv Networks, Inc.,, Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv, Inc., Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Com, Inc,, Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon X, LLC, Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICE OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Alkiviades David, Defendant: Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA.

         For Filmon X, LLC, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon X, LLC, Counter Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Tegna Inc., Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Tegna Inc., Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Filmon.Tv Networks, Inc.,, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Com, Inc,, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv, Inc., Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv Networks, Inc.,, Counter Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Com, Inc,, Counter Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv, Inc., Counter Defendant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv Networks, Inc.,, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Com, Inc,, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv, Inc., Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Allbritton Communications Company, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Cbs Broadcasting, Inc.,, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Cbs Studios, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Disney Enterprises, Inc., Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Fox Broadcasting Company, Inc., Counter Defendant: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Fox Television Stations, Inc., Counter Defendant: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Nbc Studios LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Nbc Subsidiary (Wrc-Tv), LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; John Charles Ulin PRO HAC VICE ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Open 4 Business Productions LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Telemundo Network Group LLC,, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Counter Defendant: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos PRO HAC VICE JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Universal Network Television LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Filmon.Tv Networks, Inc.,, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Com, Inc,, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon X, LLC, Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Filmon.Tv, Inc., Counter Claimant: Jaime W. Marquart LEAD ATTORNEY BAKER MARQUET LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Ryan G. Baker LEAD ATTORNEY PRO HAC VICE BAKER MARQUART LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Kerry J. Davidson LAW OFFICES OF KERRY J. DAVIDSON Silver Spring, MD USA.

         For Allbritton Communications Company, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Cbs Broadcasting, Inc.,, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Cbs Studios, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Disney Enterprises, Inc., Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Fox Broadcasting Company, Inc., Counter Defendant: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Julie Ann Shepard JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Richard L. Stone JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Fox Television Stations, Inc., Counter Defendant: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Julie Ann Shepard JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Richard L. Stone JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Nbc Studios LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Nbc Subsidiary (Wrc-Tv), LLC, Counter Defendant: John Charles Ulin LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Open 4 Business Productions LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Telemundo Network Group LLC,, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Counter Defendant: Paul March Smith LEAD ATTORNEY JENNER & BLOCK LLP Washington, DC USA; Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; Amy M. Gallegos JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Julie Ann Shepard JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Richard L. Stone JENNER & BLOCK LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

         For Universal Network Television LLC, Counter Defendant: Robert Alan Garrett LEAD ATTORNEY ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA; James Spencer Blackburn ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; John Charles Ulin ARNOLD & PORTER, LLP Los Angeles, CA USA; Murad Hussain ARNOLD & PORTER LLP Washington, DC USA.

          OPINION

         ROSEMARY M. COLLYER, United States District Judge.

Page 5

          This case involves a clash between two important national policies and interests. On the one hand, there is the need to protect and reward copyright owners for creating valuable intellectual property -- here, original television programming. On the other hand, it is important to promote competition and ensure broad public access to diverse television programming. When enacting the Copyright Act of 1976, specifically the compulsory license regime prescribed in 17 U.S.C. § 111, Congress struck a delicate balance between these two important interests. It is up to this Court to interpret and apply that balance to determine whether a service that engages in Internet retransmission of over-the-air television programming violates the Copyright Act.

         Defendant FilmOn X, LLC (formerly known as Aereokiller LLC) operates a service that captures the signals of multiple television channels that are broadcast over-the-air and streams them over the Internet to the public.[1] FilmOn X assigns

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an individual user the content stream from one of thousands of minute, dime-sized antennas that it operates in major metropolitan areas, including Washington, D.C. As a result, this service allows viewers to watch over-the-air television programming on any computer or digital device. Plaintiffs,[2] a group of television broadcasters and programmers that own much of the streamed content, sued FilmOn X, its affiliates,[3] and CEO Alkiviades David (collectively Defendants) for retransmitting their copyrighted works without a license. See Second Am. Compl. [Dkt. 66]. Plaintiffs claim that Defendants have violated their intellectual property rights, particularly the exclusive right to public performance of their copyrighted programming. See id. ¶ ¶ 39-47.

         On September 5, 2013, this Court held that FilmOn X's conduct likely violated Plaintiffs' exclusive rights and preliminarily enjoined FilmOn X and its affiliates from streaming Plaintiffs' broadcast programming without authorization. See Fox Television Stations, Inc. v. FilmOn X LLC, 966 F.Supp.2d 30 (D.D.C. 2013) (2013 D.C. Prelim. Inj.), [Dkt. 34]. In a separate case, the Supreme Court ultimately validated this Court's conclusion that the Copyright Act forbids the unauthorized retransmissions of copyrighted programs over the Internet even when such retransmissions rely on the use of separate antennas and data streams. ABC, Inc. v. Aereo, Inc., 134 S.Ct. 2498, 2511, 189 L.Ed.2d 476 (2014) ( Aereo III ). In doing so, the Supreme Court drew an analogy between Internet-based retransmitters and the community antenna television (CATV) systems that Congress brought within the scope of the Transmit Clause, 17 U.S.C. § 101, in the 1976 amendments to th e Copyright Act. Id. at 2507. Aereo III described the practices of Internet-based retransmission services as highly similar to those of CATV systems (precursors of modern cable systems). Id. at 2511. As a result, it held that retransmitting copyrighted programming over the Internet constitutes a public performance within the meaning of the Transmit Clause. Id.

         Although Defendants had expressly disclaimed the argument that they are " cable systems" within the meaning of § 111, they now rely on the Supreme Court's analogy in Aereo III to amend their answers. Compare David Decl. in Supp. of Opp'n to Mot. for Prelim. Inj. [Dkt. 31-1] (Prelim. Inj. David Decl.), Ex. B at 13 (CEO David stating that FilmOn X " is not a Cable system" ) with Answers to Am. Compl. [Dkts. 69 and 70] (raising affirmative defense that Defendants are entitled to compulsory license under § 111(c)). Defendants now argue that they are entitled to a § 111 compulsory license to retransmit Plaintiffs' broadcast programming as a cable system. Id. at 8-9. Plaintiffs move for summary judgment, arguing that Defendants' nearly-simultaneous and time-delayed retransmission services violate the Copyright Act and that Defendants are not entitled to a § 111 license. Pls.' Mot. for

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Partial Summ. J. [Dkt. 81] (Pls.' Mot.). Defendants cross-move for summary judgment on their counterclaim that they are entitled to such statutory license and they also contend that it is premature to decide whether Plaintiffs' exclusive rights of public performance were actually infringed in the past. Defs.' Mot. for Summ. J. [Dkt. 97] (Defs.' Mot.).

         Upon consideration of the parties' briefs and for the reasons stated in this Opinion, this Court holds that Defendants are not entitled to a § 111 license. Section 111(f)(3) defines cable systems as physical facilities that both receive and retransmit broadcast signals to paying subscribers through wires, cables, microwave, and other types of communication channels. FilmOn X is not such a facility because it relies on the Internet, which is neither a tangible nor physical entity, to retransmit the broadcast signals to its paying subscribers. The Court also holds that FilmOn X infringed Plaintiffs' exclusive right of public performance in violation of the Copyright Act.[4] As such, this Court will grant Plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment in part and deny Defendants' motion.

         I. ...


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